Hydrogels pp 43-51 | Cite as

Hydrogels for Healing

  • Buddy D. Ratner
  • Sarah Atzet


Hydrogels are widely used in medicine and offer advantages in many implant situations. However, the body responds to them as with any other material — by walling them off in a foreign body capsule. We show here that by making hydrogels with uniform, interconnected spherical pores of about 35 microns, the healing reaction can be shifted to one of vascularization and little fibrosis. We have also developed a biodegradable form of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) that can be used to fabricate these pro-healing, spherically pored materials.


Atomic Radical Transfer Polymerization Foreign Body Reaction Biomed Mater PMMA Microsphere Biodegradable Hydrogel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Wichterle O, Lim D (1960) Hydrophilic gels for biological use. Nature 185:117–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Anderson JM, Rodriguez A, Chang DT (2008) Foreign body reaction to biomaterials. Seminars in Immunology 20:86–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Atzet S, Curtin S, Trinh P, Bryant S, Ratner B (2008) Degradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polycaprolactone hydrogels for tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomacromolecules, doi: 10.1021/bm800686hGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Brand KG, Buoen LC, Johnson KH, Brand I (1975) Etiological factors, stages and the role of the foreign body in foreign body tumorigenesis: a review. Cancer Res 35:279–286Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Picha GJ, Siedlak DJ (1984) Ion-beam microtexturing of biomaterials. MD & DI 6(4): 39–42Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Clowes AW, Kirkman TR, Reidy MA (1986) Mechanisms of arterial graft healing-rapid transmural capillary ingrowth provides a source of intimal endothelium and smooth muscle in porous PTFE prostheses. Am J Path 123(2):220–230Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Brauker JH, Carr-Brendel VE, Martinson LA, Crudele J, Johnston WD, Johnson RC (1995) Neovascularization of synthetic membranes directed by membrane microarchitecture. J Biomed Mater Res 29:1517–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Sharkawy AA, Klitzman B, Truskey GA, Reichert WM (1997) Engineering the tissue which encapsulates subcutaneous implants. I. diffusion properties. J Biomed Mater Res 37:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Marshall AJ, Irvin CA, Barker T, Sage EH, Hauch KD, Ratner BD (2004) Biomaterials with tightly controlled pore size that promote vascular in-growth. ACS Polymer Preprints 45(2): 100–101Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Isenhath SN, Fukano Y, Usui ML, Underwood RA, Irvin CA, Marshall AJ, Hauch KD, Ratner BD, Fleckman P, Olerud JE (2007) A mouse model to evaluate the interface between skin and a percutaneous device. J Biomed Mater Research A 83:915–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Khelfallah NS, Decher G, Mesini PJ (2007) Design, synthesis, and degradation studies of new enzymatically erodible poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogels. Biointerphases 2(4): 131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Bolgen N, Yang Y, Korkusuz P, Guzel E, El Haj AJ, Piskin E (2008) Three-dimensional ingrowth of bone cells within biodegradable cryogel scaffolds in bioreactors at different regimes. Tissue Engineering A 14:1743–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Van Thienen TG, Lucas B, Flesch FM, van Nostrum CF, Demeester J, De Smedt SC (2005) On the synthesis and characterization of biodegradable dextran nanogels with tunable degradation properties. Macromolecules 38(20):8503–8511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Lim DW, Choi SH, Park TG (2000) A new class of biodegradable hydrogels stereocomplexed by enantiomeric oligo (lactide) side chains of poly(HEMA-g-OLA)s. Macromol Rapid Commun 21:464–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    He B, Wan E, Chan-Park MB (2006) Synthesis and Degradation of Biodegradable Photo-Cross-Linked Poly (a,β-malic acid)-Based Hydrogel. Chem. Mater 18:3946–3955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Matyjaszewski K, Xia J (2001) Atom transfer radical polymerization. Chem Rev 101(9):2921–2990CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milan 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Buddy D. Ratner
    • 1
  • Sarah Atzet
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB) Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical EngineeringUniversity of WashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations