• Pietro Lombari
  • Gaetano Aurilio
  • Fernando De Vita
  • Giuseppe Catalano
Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG)


Prevention represents an absolutely relevant area of oncology, its aim being to prevent the onset of cancer and to reduce mortality. The goal is to re-balance the factors that promote and inhibit carcinogenesis, including the countless exogenous (environmental) and endogenous (genetic) mechanisms. In the field of prevention, it is possible to distinguish four broad areas of research: primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and chemoprevention.


Basal Cell Carcinoma Natl Cancer Inst Contralateral Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Retinoid Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    De Vita VT, Hellman S Jr, Rosenberg SA (eds) (2005) Cancer, principles e practise of oncology. 7th edition. Lippincott Raven, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Park SM, Lim MK, Jung KW et al (2007) Prediagnosis smoking, obesity, insulin resistance, and second primary cancer risk in male cancer survivors: National Health Insurance Corporation Study. J Clin Oncol 25:4835–4843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu X, Zhao H, Do KA et al (2004) Serum levels of insulin growth factor (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein predict risk of second primary tumors in patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10:3988–3995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Do KA, Johnson MM, Doherty DA et al (2003) Second primary tumors in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancers: joint effects of smoking and alcohol (United States). Cancer Causes Control 14(2):131–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gao X, Fisher SG, Mohideen N, Emami B (2003) Second primary cancers in patients with laryngeal cancer: a population-based study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phis. 56(2):427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Minard CG, Spitz MR, Wu X et al (2006) Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and mutagen sensitivity as risk factors for the development of second primary tumors in patients previously diagnosed with early-stage head and neck cancer. Cancer 106:2636–2644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Travis LB, Fosså SD, Schonfeld SJ et al (2005) Second cancers among 40,576 testicular cancer patients: focus on long-term survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(18):1354–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hong WK, Lippman SM, Itri LM et al (1990) Prevention of second primary tumors with isotretinoin in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 323(12):795–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bolla M, Lefur R, Ton Van J et al (1994) Prevention of second primary tumours with etretinate in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Results of a multicentric double-blind randomised study. Eur J Cancer 30A(6):767–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van Zandwijk N, Dalesio O, Pastorino U et al (2000) EUROSCAN, a randomized trial of vitamin A and N-acetylcysteine in patients with head and neck cancer or lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92(12):977–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mayne ST, Cartmel B, Baum M et al (2001) Randomized trial of supplemental ß-carotene to prevent second head and neck cancer. Cancer Research 61:1457–1463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bairati I, Meyer F, Gélinas M et al (2005) A randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent second primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(7):481–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM et al (2006) Randomized phase III trial of low-dose isotretinoin for prevention of second primary tumors in stage I and II head and neck cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 98(7):441–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anonymous (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 330(15): 1029–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD et al (1996) Effects of a combination of betacarotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334(18):1150–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lippman SM, Lee JJ, Karp DD et al (2001) Randomized phase III intergroup trial of isotretinoin to prevent second primary tumors in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 93(8):605–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bevers TB (2007) The STAR trial: evidence for raloxifene as a breast cancer risk reduction agent for postmenopausal women. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 5(8):719–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Veronesi U, Mariani L, Decensi A et al (2006) Fifteen-year results of a randomized phase III trial of fenretinide to prevent second breast cancer. Ann Oncol 17:1065–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bertelsen L, Bernstein L, Olsen JH et al (2008) Effect of systemic adjuvant treatment on risk for contralateral breast cancer in the women’s environment, cancer and radiation epidemiology study. J Natl Cancer Inst 100:32–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tangrea JA, Edwards BK, Taylor PR et al (1992) Long-term therapy with low-dose isotretinoin for prevention of basal cell carcinoma: a multicenter clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:328–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levine N, Moon TE, Cartmel B et al (1997) Trial of retinol and isotretinoin in skin cancer prevention: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Southwest Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6:957–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moon TE, Levine N, Cartmel B et al (1997) Effect of retinol in preventing squamous cell skin cancer in moderate-risk subjects: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6:949–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW et al (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA 276:1957–1963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duffield-Lillico, Slate EH, Reid ME AJ et al (2003) Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of non melanoma skin cancer in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 95:1477–1481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pedersen H, Wolf H, Jensen SK et al (1984) Administration of a retinoid as prophylaxis of recurrent non-invasive bladder tumors. Scand J Urol Nephrol 18:121–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alfthan O, Tarkkanen J, Groehn P et al (1983) Tigason (etretinate) in prevention of recurrence of superficial bladder tumors. Eur Urol 9:6–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Studer UE, Biedermann C, Chollet D et al (1984) Prevention of recurrent superficial bladder tumors by oral etretinate: preliminary results of a randomized, double blind multicenter trial in Switzerland. J Urol 131:47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cruz-Correa, Hylind LM, Romans KE M et al (2002) Long-term treatment with sulindac in familial adenomatous polyposis: a prospective cohort study. Gastroenterology 122(3): 641–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Asano TK, McLeod RS (2004) Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and aspirin for preventing colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1, CD004079. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004079.pub2Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sun SY, Hail N Jr, Lotan R (2004) Apoptosis as a novel target for cancer chemoprevention. JNCI 96:662–672PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pietro Lombari
    • 1
  • Gaetano Aurilio
    • 2
  • Fernando De Vita
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Catalano
    • 2
  1. 1.Surgical, Anesthesiology-rianimative and Emergency Sciences DepartmentFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Medical Oncology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine “F. Magrassi - A. Lanzara”Second University of NaplesNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations