The Cancer Spectrum Related to Hereditary and Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancers

  • Matilde Pensabene
  • Rosaria Gesuita
  • Ida Capuano
  • Caterina Condello
  • Ilaria Spagnoletti
  • Eleonora De Maio
  • Flavia Carle
  • Stefano Pepe
  • Alma Contegiacomo
Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG)


Multiple factors are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, including age, family history, exposure to reproductive hormones, dietary factors, benign breast diseases, and environmental factors. Recently, increasing interest has been devoted to the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Family history has been recognized as an important risk factor for developing breast cancer. Individuals with a first-degree family member affected with breast cancer have a relative risk of 2.1 (95% CI = 2.0–2.2). Moreover, risk varies with the age at which the affected relative was diagnosed, the number of affected and unaffected family members and, finally, the closeness of the relationship.


Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer BRCA2 Mutation Familial Breast Cancer Male Breast Cancer 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matilde Pensabene
    • 1
  • Rosaria Gesuita
    • 1
  • Ida Capuano
    • 1
  • Caterina Condello
    • 1
  • Ilaria Spagnoletti
    • 1
  • Eleonora De Maio
    • 1
  • Flavia Carle
    • 2
  • Stefano Pepe
    • 1
  • Alma Contegiacomo
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Screening and Follow-up for Hereditary and Familial Cancer, Department of Molecular and Clinical Endocrinology and OncologyFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Centro di Epidemiologia, Biostatistica e Informatica MedicaUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly

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