• Andrea Renda
  • Nicola Carlomagno
Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG)


Ever since Billroth’s report, in 1889, of a patient with multiple tumors, a gastric carcinoma that developed after the removal of a spinocellular epithelioma of the right ear; multiple primary malignancies (MPM) have been an object of medical curiosity. Until 1932, when Warren and Gates classified 1259 such patients from literature reports and post mortem examinations [1], only a few such cases had been recognized. MPM were defined as presenting the following clinical and histological characteristics: (1) malignant tumors based on histopathologic criteria, (2) topographic distinct without connection via submucosal or intraepithelial alterations (skip metastasis), and (3) ruling out that the second tumor was not a metastasis of the first.


Gastric Cancer Survive Breast Cancer Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Uterine Cancer Public Figure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Warren S, Gates O (1932) Multiple primary malignant tumors. Am J Cancer 10:1358–1414Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moertel CG, Dockerty MB, Beggenstoss AH (1961) Multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Tumors of multicentric origin. Cancer 14:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Angelis R, Grande E, Inghelmann R et al (2007) Cancer prevalence estimates in Italy from 1970 to 2010. Tumori 93:392–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grande E et al (2007) Regional estimates of all cancer malignancies in Italy. Tumori 93:345–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al (2007) Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 57:43–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mydlík M, Derzsiová K (2005) The disease of Franz Kafka. Prague Med Rep 106(3):307–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sirven JI, Drazkowski JF, Noe KH (2007) Seizures among public figures: lessons learned from the epilepsy of Pope Pius IX. Mayo Clin Proc 82(12): 1535–1540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gerstenbrand F, Karamat E (1999) Adolf Hitler’s Parkinson’s disease and an attempt to analyse his personality structure. Eur J Neurol 6(2): 121–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Diamant H (1998) Franz Kafka, Sigmund Freud and Markus Hajek. A connection in life and death. Wien Klin Wochenschr 110(15):542–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Folz BJ, Ferlito A, Weir N et al (2007) A historical review of head and neck cancer in celebrities. J Laryngol Otol 121(6):511–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lugli A, Zlobec I, Singer G et al (2007) Napoleon Bonaparte’s gastric cancer: a clinicopathologic approach to staging, pathogenesis, and etiology. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 4(1):52–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nattinger AB, Hoffmann RG, Howell-Pelz A, Goodwin JS (1998) Effect of Nancy Reagan’s mastectomy on choice of surgery for breast cancer by US women. JAMA 279:762–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Renda
    • 1
  • Nicola Carlomagno
    • 1
  1. 1.Surgical, Anesthesiology-rianimative and Emergency Sciences DepartmentFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations