Advertisement

The Radiotherapist’s Point of View

  • Riccardo Maurizi Enrici
  • Mattia F. Osti
  • Francesca Berardi
Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG)

Abstract

Radiotherapy has played a central role in the treatment of neoplasms since the discovery of X-rays, particularly with regard to organ preservation where mutilating procedures may be avoided.

Keywords

Rectal Cancer Clin Oncol Anal Canal Dose Distribution Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Herskovich AMK, al-Sarraf M, Leichman L (1992) Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of esophagus. N Engl J Med 326:1593–1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Minsky BD (2006) Primary combined-modality therapy for esophageal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park) 20(5):497–505Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhao KL, Wang Y, Shi XH (2003) Late course accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for clinical T1-2 esophageal carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 9:1374–1376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Urba SG, Porringer MB, Turrisi A (2001) Randomized trial of pre-operative chemoradiation vs. surgery alone in patients with locoregional esophageal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 19:305–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bosset JF, Gignoux M, Triboulet JP et al (1997) Chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone in squamous-cell cancer of esophagus. N Engl J Med 337:161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walsh TN, Noonan N, Hollywood D (1996) Comparison of multimodal therapy and surgery for esophageal carcinoma. N Engl J Med 335:462–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bonnetain F, Bouche O, Michel P (2006) A comparative longitudinal quality of life study using the Spitzer quality of life index in a randomized multicenter phase III trial (FFCD 91029) Ann Oncol 17:827–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harvey JC, Fleishman EH, Bellotti JE (1993) Intracavitary radiation in the treatment of advanced esophageal carcinoma: a comparison of high dose rate vs. low dose rate brachitherapy. J Surg Oncol 52:101–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J et al (2001) Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N Engl J Med 345:725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang ZX, Gu XZ, Yin WB et al (1999) Ramdomized clinical trial on the combination of preoperative irradiation and surgery in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of gastric cardia (AGC). Report on 370 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 44(5):1185Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ajani JA, Mansfield PF, Janjan N et al (2004) Multi-institutional trial of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with potentially respectable gastric carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 22:2774–2780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gunderson L, Tepper J (2007) Clinical radiation oncology, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abe M, Takahashi M, Ono K (1988) Japan gastric trials on intraoperative radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15(6): 1431–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smalley SS, Gunderson L, Tepper J et al (2002) Gastric surgical adjuvant radiotherapy consensus report. Rationale and treatment implementation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:282Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pemberton L, Coote J, Perry V et al (2006) Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for gastric carcinoma: dosimetric implications of conventional gastric bed irradiation and toxicity. Clinical Oncology 18:663–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Soyfer V, Corn BW, Melamud A et al (2007) Three-dimensional non-coplanar conformal radiotherapy yields better results than traditional beam arrangements for adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2:364–369Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1987) Further evidence of effective adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection of pancreatic cancer. Cancer 59:2006–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sohn TA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL (2000) Resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas — 616 patients: results, outcomes, and prognostic indicators. J Gastrointest Surg 4(6):567–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Regine WF, Winter KW, Abrams R et al (2006) RTOG 9704 a phase III study of adjuvant pre and post chemoradiation (CRT) 5-FU vs. gemcitabine (G) for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol 24(Suppl 18):A-4007, 180sGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haddock MG, Swaminathan R, Foster NR et al (2007) Gemcitabine, cisplatin and radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: results of the North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase II Study N9942. J Clin Oncol 25:2567–2572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morris SL, Beaslye M, Leslie M et al (2004) Chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med 350:2713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Regine WF, Winter KW, Abrams R et al (2006) RTOG 9704, a phase III study of adjuvant pre-and post-chemoradiation (CRS) 5-FU vs. gemcitabine (G) for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol 185:4007Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Spitz FR, Abbruzzese JL, Lee JL (1997) Preoperative and postoperative chemoradiation strategies in patients treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. J Clin Oncol 15(3):928–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoffmann JP, Cooper HS, Nancy A (1998) Preoperative chemoterapy of chemoradiotherapy of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and ampulla of Vater. J Hepatobil Pancr Surg 5:251–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moertel CG, Frytak S, Hahn RG (1981) Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized comparison of high dose radiation alone, moderate dose radiation and high dose radiation + 5-fluorouracil. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. Cancer 48:1705–1710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oettle H, Neuhaus P (2007) Adjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: a critical appraisal. Drugs 67(16):2293–2310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li CP, Chao Y, Chi KH et al (2003) Concurrent chemoradiotherapy treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer: gemcitabine vs. 5-fluorouracil, a randomized controlled study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 57(1):98–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Milano MT, Chmura SJ, Garafalo MC (2004) Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in treatment of pancreatic and bile duct malignancies: toxicity and clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59:445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group (1984) Adjuvant therapy of colon cancer. Results of a prospectively randomized trial. N Engl J Med 312:1465Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    O’Connel MJ, Martenson JA, Wiland HS et al (1994) Improving adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer by combining protected infusion fluorouracil with radiation therapy after curative surgery. N Engl J Med 331:502–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Connell MJ (2002) Improving adjuvant therapy in stage II and III rectal cancer to define the optimal sequence of chemotherapy and radiotherapy: a preliminary report. J Clin Oncol 20:1751–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bosset JF (2004) Does the addition of chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy increase the pathological response in patients with resected rectal cancer? Proc ASCO 22:247Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sauer R, Becker H, Homenberger W et al (2004) Preoperative chemoradiotherapy as compared with postoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. New Engl J Med 351:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nagtegaal ID, Quirke P (2008) What is the role for the circumferential margin in the modern treatment of rectal cancer? J Clin Oncol 26(2):303–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roedel C (2004) Tumor regression grade as a prognostic factor in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiochemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phis 60(1):S140Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bonnen M, Crane C, Vauthey JN et al (2004) Long term results using local excision after preoperative chemoradiation among selected T3 rectal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60(4): 1098–1105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Larson SM, Schoder H, Yeung H (2004) Positron emission tomography / computerized tomography functional imaging of esophageal and colorectal cancer. Cancer J 10:243–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Suzuki K, Dozois RR, Devine RM (1996) Curative reoperations for locally recurrent rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 39(7):730–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Valentini V, Morganti AG, De Franco A (1999) Chemoradiation with or without intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with locally recurrence of rectal carcinoma: prognostic factors and long term outcome. Cancer 86(12):2612–2624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ryan DP, Compton CC, Mayer RJ (2000) Carcinoma of the anal canal. N Engl J Med 342:792–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nigro ND, Seydal HG, Considine B et al (1983) Combined preoperative radiation and chemotherapy for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Cancer 51(10):1826–1829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Crehange G, Bosset M, Lorchel F et al (2006) Combining cisplatin and Mitomycin with radiotherapy in anal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum 50:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL et al (2006) Intergroup RTOG 98-11: a phase III randomized study of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs. 5-FU cisplatin and radiotherapy in carcinoma of the anal canal. J Clin Oncol 24: 18S, abstract 4009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Konski AA, Winter K, John M et al (2007) Evaluation of planned treatment breaks during radiation therapy for anal cancer: update of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-08. J Clin Oncol Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. Abstract 297Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Maurizi Enrici
    • 1
  • Mattia F. Osti
    • 1
  • Francesca Berardi
    • 1
  1. 1.UOC Chirurgia A, Sant’Andrea HospitalUniversity of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations