Advertisement

Organisms Associated with Acetic Acid Bacteria in Vinegar Production

  • Sandra Rainieri
  • Carlo Zambonelli

Abstract

Vinegars are the product of scalar fermentations carried out by several groups of microorganisms acting at different moments in time. The initial phase is generally represented by an alcoholic fermentation commonly carried out by yeasts. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can also play a role in releasing ethanol and acetic acid from heterofermentative lactic acid fermentations. Depending on the nature of the substrate, the production of ethanol can be preceded by a transformation that induces the release of fermentable sugars from complex substrates. This is the case of rice vinegars, which require the action of some moulds of the genus Aspergillus to break the starch into fermentable sugars. The ethanol originating from the alcoholic fermentation is finally oxidized by acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and the alcoholic beverage is turned into vinegar (see Table 5.1). Even though acetic acid bacteria play the leading role in vinegar production, the metabolic activity of yeasts, moulds and lactic acid bacteria is also crucial for guaranteeing the manufacture of the product. These microorganisms, in fact, modify the fermentative substrates in order to allow the final stage of ethanol oxidation. This chapter provides an overview of their taxonomy, their nutritional requirements, their metabolic activity and their relevance in the vinegar manufacturing process (see Table 5.2). Brief descriptions of vinegar eels and Drosophila are also given to complete the variety of organisms that are involved in vinegar production.

Keywords

Lactic Acid Bacterium Yeast Species Alcoholic Fermentation Ethanol Oxidation Wine Yeast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antonelli A, Castellari L, Zambonelli C, Carnicini A (1999) Yeast influence on volatile composition of wines. J Agric Food Chem 47:1139–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelsson L (2004) Lactic acid bacteria: classification and physiology. In: Salmien S, von Wright A, Ouwehand A (eds) Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1–66Google Scholar
  3. Buchholz TG, Hoschitz M, Gullo M, Giudici P (2005) Identification of a free-living nematode from traditional balsamic vinegar. Proceedings, 1st Vinegar and Acetic Acid Bacteria Symposium, Reggio Emilia, 8-12 May, P31Google Scholar
  4. Cary JW, Linz JE, Bhatnagar D (2000) Aflatoxins: biological significance and regulation of biosynthesis. In: Cary JW, Linz JE, Bhatnagar D (eds) Microbial Foodborne Diseases: Mechanism of Pathogenesis and Toxin Synthesis. Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA, pp.317–361Google Scholar
  5. Castellari L, Ferruzzi M, Magrini A, Giudici P, Passarelli P, Zambonelli C (1994) Unbalanced wine fermentation by cryotolerant vs non-cryotolerant Saccharomyces strains. Vitis 33:49–52Google Scholar
  6. Christensen T (1994) Application: Aspergillus oryzae as a host for production of industrial enzymes. In: Powell KA, Renwick A, Peberdy JF (eds) The Genus Aspergillus. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 251–259Google Scholar
  7. Demuyter C, Collier M, Legras JL, Le Jeune C (2004) Predominance of Saccharomyces uvarum during spontaneous alcoholic fermentation, for three consecutive years, in an Alsatian winery. J Appl Microbiol 97:1140–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Engel VG, Krusch U, Teuber M (1986) Microbiological composition of kefir. I. Yeasts Milchwissenschaft 41:418–422Google Scholar
  9. Eriksson OE, Winka K (1997) Supraordinal taxa of Ascomycota. Myconet 1:1–16 [available at www.fieldmuseum.org/myconet/].Google Scholar
  10. Fukuhara H (2003) The Kluyver effect revisited. FEMS Yeast Res 3:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giudici P, Pulvirenti A (2002) Molecular methods for identification of wine yeasts. In: Ciani M (ed) Biodiversity and Biotechnology of Wine Yeast. Managing Editor Research, India, pp. 35–52Google Scholar
  12. Giudici P, Altieri C, Gambini GL (1993) Influenza del ceppo di lieviti sui prodotti minoritari della fermentazione alcolica. Ind Bevande 22:303–306Google Scholar
  13. Giudici P, Zambonelli C, Passarelli P, Castellari L (1995) Improvement of wine composition with cryotolerant Saccharomyces strains. Am J Enol Vitic 46:143–147Google Scholar
  14. Giudici P, Masini G, Caggia C (1996) The role of galactose fermenting yeast in plain yogurt spoilage. Ann Microbiol 46:11–20Google Scholar
  15. Giudici P, Caggia C, Pulvirenti A (1999) Cryotolerant Saccharomyces strains and spoilage of refrigerated must. Ann Microbiol 49:155–161Google Scholar
  16. Greenwalt CJ, Steinkraus KH, Ledford RA (2000) Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects. J Food Protect 63:976–981Google Scholar
  17. Hibbett DS, Binder M, Bischoff JF, Blackwell M et al (2007) A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol Res 111:509–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kishimoto M, Shinohara T, Soma E, Goto S (1993) Selection and fermentation properties of cryophilic wine yeasts. J Ferment Bioeng 75:451–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klingler J (1986) Slauzen Phflanzenparasitichen Nematoden. Eidc Forschungsanstalt, Wädenswill, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  20. Kodama Y, Kielland-Brandt M, Hansen J (2006) Lager brewing yeasts. In: Sunnerhagen P, Piškur J (eds) Comparative Genomics using Fungi as Models. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp.145–164Google Scholar
  21. Kreger van Rij NJW (1984) The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study, 3rd edn. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. Kurtzman CP (2003) Phylogenetic circumscription of Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces and other members of the Saccharomycetaceae, and the proposal of the new genera Lachancea, Nakaseomyces, Naumovia, Vanderwaltozyma and Zygotorulaspora. FEMS Yeast Res 4: 233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kurtzman CP, Fell JW (1998) The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study, 4th edn. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  24. Kurtzman CP, Robnett CJ, Basehoar-Power E (2001) Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from ‘Kombucha tea’. FEMS Yeast Res 1:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu SQ (2002) Malolactic fermentation in wine: beyond deacidification. J Appl Microbiol 92: 589–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lowe DP, Arendt EK (2004) The use and effects of lactic acid bacteria in malting and brewing with their relationships to antifungal activity, mycotoxins and gushing: a review. J Inst Brew 110:163–180Google Scholar
  27. Machida M, Asai K, Sano M et al (2005) Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae. Nature 438:1157–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matsushima K, Yashiro K, Hanya Y, Keietsu A, Yabe K, Hamasaki T (2001) Absence of aflatoxin biosynthesis in koji mold. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55:771–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McCann AK, Barnett JA (1986) The utilization of starch by yeasts. Yeast 2:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mikata K, Ueda-Nishimura K, Hisatomi T (2001) Three new species of Saccharomyces sensu lato van der Walt from Yaku Island in Japan: Saccharomyces naganishii sp. nov., Saccharomyces humaticus sp. nov. and Saccharomyces yakushimaensis sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51: 289–298Google Scholar
  31. Montanari G, Zambonelli C, Grazia L, Kamaesheva GK, Shigaeva MK (1996) Saccharomyces unisporus as the principal alcoholic fermentation microorganisms of traditional koumiss. J Dairy Res 63:327–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mortimer R, Polsinelli M (1999) On the origins of wine yeast. Res Microbiol 150:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Naumov GI, Naumova ES, Antunovics Z, Sipiczki M (2002) Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum in Tokaj wine-making of Slovakia and Hungary. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 59:727–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nelson ME, Werkman CH (1935) Dissimilation of glucose by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. J Bacteriol 6:547–557Google Scholar
  35. Orla-Jensen S (1919) The Lactic Acid Bacteria. Anhr Fred Host and Son, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  36. Parrondo J, Herrero M, Garcìa LA, Dìaz M (2003) A note: production of vinegar from whey. J Inst Brew 109:356–358Google Scholar
  37. Pulvirenti A, Zambonelli C, Todaro A, Giudici P (2002) Interspecific hybridisation by digestive tract of invertebrates as a source of environmental biodiversity within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ann Microbiol 52:245–255Google Scholar
  38. Redzepovic S, Orlic S, Sikora S, Majdak A, Pretorius IS (2002) Identification and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus strains isolated from Croatian vineyards. Lett Appl Microbiol 35:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Redzepovic S, Orlic S, Majdak A, Kozina B, Volschenk H, Viljoen-Bloom M (2003) Differential malic acid degradation by selected strains of Saccharomcyes during alcoholic fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol 25:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rouwenhorst RJ, Ritmeester WS, Scheffers WA, Van Dijken JP (1990) Localization of inulinase and invertase in Kluyveromyces species. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:3329–3336Google Scholar
  41. Samson RA, Hong S-B, Frisvad JC (2006) Old and new concepts of species differentiation in Aspergillus. Med Mycol 44:S133–S148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shann C (1987) Correlazione tra sistemi ecologici nel marciume acido delle uve. Atti Accad Ital Vite Vino 39:333–355Google Scholar
  43. Sneath PHA, Mair NS, Sharpe ME, Halt JG (1986) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol 2. Williams and Wilkins Co, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  44. Solieri L, Landi S, De Vero L, Giudici P (2006) Molecular assessment of indigenous yeast population from traditional balsamic vinegar. J Appl Microbiol 101:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Solieri L, Cassanelli S, Giudici P (2007) A new putative Zygosaccharomyces yeast species isolated from traditional balsamic vinegar. Yeast 24:403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steel H, Bond CG, Collins MD, Roberts IN, Stratford M, James SA (1999) Zygosaccharomyces lentus sp. nov., a new member of the yeast genus Zygosaccharomyces Barker. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49:319–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stiles ME, Holzapfel WH (1997) Lactic acid bacteria of foods and their current taxonomy. Int J Food Microbiol 36:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stratford M (2006) Food and beverage spoilage yeasts. In: Querol A, Fleet G (eds), Yeast in Food and Beverages. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 335–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Torriani S, Zapparoli G, Suzzi G (1999) Genetic and phenotypic diversity of Saccharomyces sensu stricto strains isolated from Amarone wine. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 75:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Van der Walt JP (1970) Genus 16 Saccharomyces Meyen emend. Rees. In: Lodder J (ed) The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study, 2nd edn. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 555–718Google Scholar
  51. Wong S, Wolfe KH (2006) Duplication of genes and genomes in yeasts. In: Sunnerhagen P, Piskur J (eds) Comparative genomics, using fungi as models. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 79–99Google Scholar
  52. Zambonelli C (2003) Microbiologia e biotecnologia dei vini. Edagricole, BolognaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Rainieri
    • 1
  • Carlo Zambonelli
    • 2
  1. 1.AZTI-Tecnalia, Food Research DivisionParque Tecnologico de Bizkaia, 609Derio (Bizkaia)Spain
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of BolognaCovioloItaly

Personalised recommendations