Advertisement

Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Spinal Sac and Its Content in Neonates and Infants

  • Ingmar Gassner

Abstract

In newborns and young infants, sonography allows detailed depiction of the spinal cord. Ultrasonography of the intraspinal contents is included in the screening evaluation of neonates with suspected spinal dysraphism (cutaneous lesions of the back, deformities of the spinal column, neurologic disturbances), and with syndromes with known risk for spinal-cord compression. Spinal sonography is also important in the evaluation of birth-related spinal cord injury.

Keywords

Spinal Cord Club Foot Central Canal Spinal Dysraphism Conus Medullaris 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

Normal Anatomy

  1. Beek FJ, Bax KM, Mali WP (1994) Sonography of the coccyx in newborns and infants. J Ultrasound Med 13(8):629–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beek FJ, de Vries LS, Gerards LJ, Mali WP (1996) Sonographic determination of the position of the conus medullaris in premature and term infants. Neuroradiology Suppl 1:S174–S177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dick EA, de Bruyn R (2003) Ultrasound of the spinal cord in children: its role. Eur J Radiol 13:552–562Google Scholar
  4. Di Pietro MA (2005) The pediatric spinal canal. In: Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A (ed) Pediatric Neuroradiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 1589–1615Google Scholar
  5. Di Pietro MA (1993) The conus medullaris: normal US findings throughout childhood. Radiology. 188(1):149–153Google Scholar
  6. Gusnard DA, Naidich TP, Yousefzadeh DK, Haughton VM (1986) Ultrasonic anatomy of the normal neonatal and infant spine: correlation with cryomicrotome sections and CT. Neuroradiology 28(5–6):493–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kriss VM, Kriss TC, Coleman RC (2000) Sonographic appearance of the ventriculus terminalis cyst in the neonatal spinal cord. J Ultrasound Med 19(3):207–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Nelson MD Jr, Sedler JA, Gilles FH (1989) Spinal cord central echo complex: histoanatomic correlation. Radiology 170(2):479–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Rypens F, Avni EF, Matos C et al (1995) Atypical and equivocal sonographic features of the spinal cord in neonates. Pediatr Radiol 25:429–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Zieger M, Dörr U (1988) Pediatric spinal sonography. Part I: Anatomy and examination technique. Pediatr Radiol 18(1):9–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Spinal Dysraphism

  1. Byrd SE, Darling CF, McLone DG (1991) Developmental disorders of the pediatric spine. Radiol Clin North Am 29(4):711–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Gerscovich EO, Maslen L, Cronan MS et al (1999) Spinal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with repaired myelomeningocele: comparison of modalities. J Ultrasound Med 18(9):655–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Könner C, Gassner I, Mayr U, Kreczy A (1990) Zur Diagnose der Diastematomyelie mittels Ultraschall. Klin Pädiatr 202(2):124–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Korsvik HE, Keller MS (1992) Sonography of occult dysraphism in neonates and infants with MR imaging correlation. Radiographics 12:297–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kriss VM, Desai NS (1998) Occult spinal dysraphism in neonates: assessment of high-risk cutaneous stigmata on sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 171(6):1687–1692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Naidich TP, McLone DG, Mutluer S (1983) A new understanding of dorsal dysraphism with lipoma (lipomyeloschisis): radiologic evaluation and surgical correction. AJR Am J Roentgenol 140(6):1065–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Robinson AJ, Russell S, Rimmer S (2005) The value of ultrasonic examination of the lumbar spine in infants with specific reference to cutaneous markers of occult spinal dysraphism. Clin Radiol 60:72–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A, Cama A (2000) Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlations and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology 42(7):471–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tortori-Donati P, Rossi A, Biancheri R et al (2001) Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal dysraphism. Top Magn Reson Imaging 12:375–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Unsinn KM, Geley T, Freund MC, Gassner I (2000) US of the spinal cord in newborns: spectrum of normal findings, variants, congenital anomalies, and acquired diseases. Radiographics 20(4):923–938PubMedGoogle Scholar

Caudal Regression Syndrome

  1. Appignani BA, Jaramillo D, Barnes PD, Poussaint TY (1994) Dysraphic myelodysplasias associated with urogenital and anorectal anomalies: prevalence and types seen with MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:1199–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beek FJ, Boemers TM, Beek FJ et al (1995) Spine evaluation in children with anorectal malformations. Pediatr Radiol Suppl 1:S28–S32Google Scholar

Trauma to the Spine and Spinal Cord

  1. Babyn PS, Chuang SH, Daneman A, Davidson GS (1988) Sonographic evaluation of spinal cord birth trauma with pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol 151(4):763–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Coley BD, Murakami JW, Koch BL et al (2001) Diagnostic and interventional ultrasound of the pediatric spine. Pediatr Radiol 31:775–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Filippigh P, Clapuyt P, Debauche C, Claus D (1994) Sonographic evaluation of traumatic spinal cord lesions in the newborn infant. Pediatr Radiol 24(4):245–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fotter R, Sorantin E, Schneider U et al (1994) Ultrasound diagnosis of birth-related spinal cord trauma: neonatal diagnosis and follow-up and correlation with MRI. Pediatr Radiol 24(4):241–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Unsinn KM, Schlenck B et al (2003) Cerebrospinal fluid leakage after lumbar puncture in neonates: incidence and sonographic appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 181(1):231–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Towbin A (1970) Central nervous system damage in the human fetus and newborn infant. Mechanical and hypoxic injury incurred in the fetal-neonatal period. Am J Dis Child 119(6):529–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Towbin A (1969) Latent spinal cord and brain stem injury in newborn infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 11(1):54–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Wigglesworth JS, Husemeyer RP (1977) Intracranial birth trauma in vaginal breech delivery: the continued importance of injury to the occipital bone. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 84(9):684–691PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingmar Gassner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Paediatrics, Section of Paediatric RadiologyUniversity Hospital InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations