Sinonasal Imaging: Normal Anatomy and Pathologic Processes

  • Laurie A. Loevner


The maxillary sinuses are the first of the paranasal sinuses to develop, beginning in the first trimester of gestation and usually completed by adolescence. The ethmoid air cells arise from numerous evaginations from the nasal cavity, starting with the anterior air cells and progressing to the posterior air cells. The ethmoid air cells develop between the end of the first trimester and the mid-second trimester of gestation, although their final adult proportions are usually attained during puberty. The sphenoid sinus is present by the second trimester of pregnancy, and usually finishes its growth by the time a child reaches 10 years of age. The frontal sinuses are the only sinuses that are consistently absent at birth. Their development is variable, beginning during the first few years of life, and completed in early adolescence.


Nasal Cavity Paranasal Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Frontal Sinus Middle Turbinate 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurie A. Loevner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyHospital of the University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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