Ecology, Epidemiology and Human Health Implications of Avian Influenza Virus Infections



Avian influenza (Al) represents one of the greatest concerns for public health that has emerged from the animal reservoir in recent times. AI, in its highly path ogenic form (HPAI), has been known to the veterinary community since the end of the 19th century, when an Italian scientist. Edoardo Perroncito, reported what is believed to be the first documented evidence of “fowl plague” as a distinct disease. However, for over 100 years, HPAI proved to be a poultry disease of rare occurrence that, in most cases, affected an irrelevant number of birds. Generally speaking, it was either self-limiting or controlled efficiently through the application of measures aimed evadicating the infection from the affected area. At approximately the turn of the millennium, however, a sharp increase in the number of outbreaks of AI in poultry occurred. It has been calculated that the impact of AI on the poultry industry has increased 100-fold, with 23 million birds affected in the 40-year period between 1959 and 1998 and over 200 million from 1999 to 2004 (Capua and Alexander 2004).


Influenza Virus Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Avian Influenza Virus Wild Bird 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander DJ (2000) A review of avian influenza in different bird species. Vet Microbiol 74(1–2):3–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander DJ (2001) Ecology of avian influenza in domestic birds. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Ortho-and Paramyxovirus Diseases. Merieux Foundation, Veger du Lac, France 25–34Google Scholar
  3. Alexander DJ (2002) Report on avian influenza in the Eastern Hemisphere during 1997–2002. Avian Dis 47(3 Suppl):792–797Google Scholar
  4. Alexander DJ (2008) Avian influenza manual for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 6th edition. Chapter 2.7.12. World Organisation for Animal Health, Paris, France. Scholar
  5. Alexander DJ (2007) Summary of avian influenza activity in Europe Asia, Africa and Australasia 2002–2006. Avian Dis 51(1 Suppl):161–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexander DJ, Allan WH, Parsons DG, Parsons G (1978) The pathogenicity of four avian influenza viruses for fowls, turkeys and ducks. Res Vet Sci 24(2):242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexander DJ, Parsons G, Manvell RJ (1986) Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of eight avian influenza A viruses of H5 subtype for chickens, turkeys, ducks and quails. Avian Pathol 15:647–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banks J, Speidel E, Alexander DJ (1998) Characterisation of an avian influenza A virus isolated from a human—is an intermediate host necessary for the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses? Arch Virol 143(4):781–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Banks J, Speidel EC, Harris PA, Alexander DJ (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses of H9 haemagglutinin subtype. Avian Pathol 29:353–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Banks J, Speidel EC, McCauley JW, Alexander DJ (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of H7 haemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses. Arch Virol 145(5):1047–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bearee AS, Webster RG (1991) Replication of avian influenza A viruses in humans. Arch Virol 119(1–2):37–42Google Scholar
  12. Becker WB (1966) The isolation and classification of Tem virus: Influenza A — Tern South Africa — 1961. J Hyg (Lond) 64(3):309–320Google Scholar
  13. Berg M, Englund L, Abusugra IA et al (1990) Close relationship between mink influenza (H10N4) and concomitantly circulating avian influenza viruses. Arch Virol 113(1–2):61–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bridges CB, Lim W, Hu-Primmer J et al (2002) Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong, 1997–1998. J Infect Dis 185(8):1005–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Butt KM, Smith GJ, Chen H et al (2005) Human infection with an avian H9N2 influenza A virus in Hong Kong in 2003. J Clin Microbiol 43(11):5760–5767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Callan RJ, Early G, Kida H, Hinshaw VS (1995) The appearance of H3 influenza viruses in seals. J Gen Virol 76(Pt 1):199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Campbell CH, Webster RG, Breese SS Jr (1970) Fowl plague virus from man. J Infect Dis 122(6):513–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Campbell G (1998) Report of the Irish national reference laboratory for 1996 and 1997. Proceedings of the Joint Fourth Annual Meetings of the National Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Laboratories of Countries of the European Union. Brussels. 1997 p 13Google Scholar
  19. Capua I, Alexander DJ, (2004) Avian influenza: recent developments. Avian Pathol 33(4):393–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Capua I, Marangon S (2007) The use of vaccination to combat multiple introductions of Notifiable Avian Influenza viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes between 2000 and 2006 in Italy. Vaccine 25(27):4987–4995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Capua I, Marangon S, Dalla Pozza M et al (2003) Avian influenza in Italy 1997–2001. Avian Dis 47(3 Suppl):839–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Capua I, Mutinelli F (2001) An atlas and text on avian influenza. Papi Editore pp 1–236Google Scholar
  23. Capua I, Mutinelli F, Marangon S, Alexander DJ (2000) H7N1 Avian Influenza in Italy (1999–2000) in intensively reared chickens and turkeys. Avian Pathol 29:737–743Google Scholar
  24. Chambers TM, Yamnikova S, Kawaoka Y et al (1989) Antigenic and molecular characterization of subtype H13 hemagglutinin of influenza virus. Virology 172(1):180–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chan PK (2002) Outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in Hong Kong in 1997. Clin Infect Dis 34(2 Suppl):58–64Google Scholar
  26. Chen H, Smith GJ, Zhang SY et al (2005) Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 436(7048):191–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choi YK, Nguyen TD, Ozaki H et al (2005) Studies of H5N1 influenza virus infection of pigs by using viruses isolated in Vietnam and Thailand in 2004. J Virol 79(16):10821–10825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davison S, Eckroade RJ, Ziegler AF (2003) A review of the 1996–98 nonpathogenic H7N2 avian influenza outbreak in Pennsylvania. Avian Dis 47(3 Suppl):823–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. EFSA (2005) Epidemiology report on avian influenza in a quarantine premises in Essex 111105.pdfGoogle Scholar
  30. EFSA (2005) Animal health and welfare aspects of avian influenza. EFSA J 266:1–21Google Scholar
  31. Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA et al (2004) Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol 33(5):492–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fioretti A, Menna LF, Calabria M (1998) The epidemiological situation of avian influenza in Italy during 1996–1997. Proceedings of the Joint Fourth Annual Meetings of the National Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Laboratories of Countries of the European Union, Brussels 1997, 17–22Google Scholar
  33. Fouchier RA, Schneeberger PM, Rozendaal FW et al (1980) Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(5):1356–1361Google Scholar
  34. Gething MJ, Bye J, Skehel J, Waterfield M (1980) Cloning and DNA sequence of double-stranded copies of haemagglutinin genes from H2 and H3 strains elucidates antigenic shift and drift in human influenza virus. Nature 287(5780):301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Glass SE, Naqi SA, Grumbles LC (1981) Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas. Avian Dis 25(2):545–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Guan Y, Shortridge KF, Krauss S et al (1996) Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China. J Virol 70(11):8041–8046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Guo Y, Wang M, Kawaoka Y et al (1992) Characterization of a new avian-like influenza A virus from horses in China. Virology 188(1):245–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Halvorson DA, Frame DD, Friendshuh AJ, Shaw DP (1998) Outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza in USA. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Athens, Georgia, US Animal Health Association 36–46Google Scholar
  39. Halvorson DA, Karunakaran D, Senne D et al (1983) Epizootiology of avian influenza — simultaneous monitoring of sentinel ducks and turkeys in Minnesota. Avian Dis 27(1):77–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Halvorson DA, Kelleher CJ, Pomeroy BS et al (1987) Surveillance procedures for avian influenza. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Avian Influenza, University of Wisconsin, Madison 155–63Google Scholar
  41. Halvorson DA, Kodillalli S, Laudert E et al (1992) Influenza in turkeys in turkey in the USA, 1987–1991. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Avian Influenza 33–42Google Scholar
  42. Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ, Geraci J et al (1986) Characterization of two influenza A viruses from a pilot whale. J Virol 58(2):655–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Easterday BC, Bean WJ Jr (1981b) Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals. Infect Immun 34(2):354–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hinshaw VS, Webster RG, Rodriguez RJ (1981a) Influenza A viruses: combinations of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes isolated from animals and other sources. Arch Virol 67(3):191–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Homme PJ, Easterday BC, Anderson DP (1970) Avian influenza virus infections. II. Experimental epizootiology of influenza A-turkey-Wisconsin-1966 virus in turkeys. Avian Dis 14(2):240–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Humberd J, Guan Y, Webster RG (2006) Comparison of the replication of influenza A viruses in Chinese ringnecked pheasants and chukar partridges. J Virol 80(5):2151–2161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Irvine RM, Banks J, Londt BZ et al (2007) An outbreak of neglypathogenic avian influenza caused by an Asian lineage H5N1 virus in turkeys in Great Britain in January 2007. Vet Rec 161:100–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Isoda N, Sakoda Y, Kishida N et al (2006) Pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1) in different species of brids and mammals. Arch Virol 151(7):1267–1279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson DC (1984) AI task force veterinarian offers practical suggestions. Broiler Indust 47:58–59Google Scholar
  50. Karasin AI, Brown IH, Carman S, Olsen CW (2000) Isolation and characterization of H4N6 avian influenza viruses from pigs with pneumonia in Canada. J Virol 74(19):9322–9327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Karasin AI, West K, Carman S, Olsen CW (2004) Characterization of avian H3N3 and H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated from pigs in Canada. J Clin Microbiol 42(9):4349–4354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kawaoka Y, Chambers TM, Sladen WL, Webster RG (1988) Is the gene pool of influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls different from that in wild ducks? Virology 163(1):247–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kawaoka Y, Krauss S, Webster RG (1989) Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. J Virol 63(11):4603–4608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Keawcharoen J, Oraveerakul K, Kuiken T et al (2004) Avian influenza H5N1 in tigers and leopards. Emerg Infect Dis 10(12):2189–2191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kida H, Ito T, Yasuda J et al (1994) Potential for transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs. J Gen Virol 75(Pt 9):2183–2188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. King LJ (1984) How APHIS “war room” mobilized to fight AI. Broiler Indust 47:44–51Google Scholar
  57. Klingeborn B, Englund L, Rott R et al (1985) An avian influenza A virus killing a mammalian species — the mink. Brief Report. Arch Virol 86(3–4):347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kuiken T, Rimmelzwaan G, van Riel D et al (2004) Avian H5N1 influenza in cats. Science 306(5694):241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kurtz J, Manvell RJ, Banks J (1996) Avian influenza virus isolated from a woman with conjunctivitis. Lancet 348(9031):901–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lang G (1982) A review of influenza in Canadian domestic and wild birds. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian influenza, Carter Composition Corporation, Richmond, USA 21–27Google Scholar
  61. Lang G, Gagnon A, Geraci JR (1981) Isolation of an influenza A virus from seals. Arch Virol 68(3–4):189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lei F, Tang S, Zhao D et al (2007) Characterization of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from migratory birds in Qinghai province of China in 2006. Avian Dis 51(2):568–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Li SQ, Orlich M, Rott R (1990) Generation of seal influenza virus variants pathogenic for chickens, because of hemagglutinin cleavage site changes. J Virol 64(7):3297–3303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Liu J, Xiao H, Lei F et al (2005) Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. Science 309(5738):1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Londt BZ, Banks J, Alexander DJ (2007) Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with low virulence for chickens in in vivo tests. Avian Pathol 36(5):347–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lvov D (1978) Circulation of influenza viruses in natural biocoenosis. Viruses and Environment 351–380Google Scholar
  67. Loeffen W, De Boer-Luitze E, Koch G (2003) Infection with avian influenza virus (H7N7) in Dutch pigs. Proceedings ESVV Congress St Malo France 50Google Scholar
  68. Loeffen W, De Boer-Luitze E, Koch G (2004) Transmission of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus to swine in the Netherlands Proceedings of the in-between congress of the International Society for Animal Hygiene 329–330Google Scholar
  69. Ludwig S, Haustein A, Kaleta EF, Scholtissek, C (1994) Recent influenza A (H1N1) infections of pigs and turkeys in northern Europe. Virology 202(1):281–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Makarova NV, Ozaki H, Kida H et al (2003) Replication and transmission of influenza viruses in Japanese quail. Virology 310(1):8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mo IP, Song CS, Kim KS, Rhee JC (1998) An occurrence of non-highly pathogenic avian influenza in Korea. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Athens, Georgia (1997) US Animal Health Association 379–83Google Scholar
  72. Mohan R, Saif YM, Erickson GA et al (1981) Serologic and epidemiologic evidence of infection in turkeys with an agent related to the swine influenza virus. Avian Dis 25(1):11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Monne I, Joannis TM, Fusaro A et al (2008) Reassortant avian influenza virus (H5N1) in poultry. Nigeria, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis 14(4):637–640. Available from Scholar
  74. Narayan O, Lang G, Rouse BT (1969) A new influenza A virus infection in turkeys. V. Pathology of the experimental disease by strain turkey-Ontario 7732–66. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 26(1):166–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. OIE (2006) Update on avian influenza in animals (type H5), April 07 2006, Scholar
  76. OIE (2007) Update on avian influenza in animals (typeH5), September 15 2007, Scholar
  77. Okazaki K, Yanagawa R, Kida H (1983) Contact infection of mink with 5 subtypes of avian influenza virus. Brief report. Arch Virol, 77(2–4):265–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Olsen B, Munster VJ, Wallensten A et al (2006) Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds. Science 312(5772):384–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pasick J, Handel K, Robinson J, Copps J et al (2005) Intersegmental recombination between the haemagglutinin and matrix genes was responsible for the emergence of a highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza virus in British Columbia. J Gen Virol 86(Pt 3):727–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Peiris JS, Guan Y, Markwell D et al (2001) Cocirculation of avian H9N2 and contemporary “human” H3N2 influenza A viruses in pigs in southeastern China: potential for genetic reassortment? J Virol 75(20):9679–9686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Peiris M, Yuen KY, Leung CW et al (1999) Human infection with influenza H9N2. Lancet 354(9182):916–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Pensaert M, Ottis K, Vandeputte J et al (1981) Evidence for the natural transmission of influenza A virus from wild ducks to swine and its potential importance for man. Bull World Health Org 59(1):75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Perdue ML, Crawford JM, Garcia M et al (1998) Occurrence and possible mechanisms of cleavage site insertions in the avian influenza hemagglutinin gene. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, Athens, Georgia. US animal Health Association, 182–193Google Scholar
  84. Perez DR, Webby RJ, Hoffmann E, Webster RG (2003) Land-based birds as potential disseminators of avian mammalian reasortant influenza A viruses. Avian Dis 47(3 Suppl):1114–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pomeroy BS (1982) Avian influenza in the United States (1964–1980). Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Avian Influenza 13–17Google Scholar
  86. Pomeroy BS (1987) Avian influenza — Avian influenza in turkeys in the USA. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Avian Influenza, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 14–21Google Scholar
  87. Puzelli S, Di Trani L, Fabiani C et al (2005) Serological analysis of serum samples from humans exposed to avian H7 influenza viruses in Italy between 1999 and 2003. J Infect Dis 192(8):1318–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Röhm C, Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y et al (1995) Do hemagglutinin genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses constitute unique phylogenetic lineages? Virology 209(2):664–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Salzberg SL, Kingsford C, Cattoli G et al (2007) Genome analysis linking recent European and African influenza (H5N1) viruses. Emerg Infect Dis 13(5):713–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Scholtissek C, Koennecke I, Rott R (1978) Host range recombinants of fowl plague (influenza A) virus. Virology 91(1):79–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Senne DA (2007) Avian influenza in North and South America, 2002–2005. Avian Dis 5(1 Suppl):167–173Google Scholar
  92. Senne DA (2003) Avian influenza in the Western Hemisphere including the Pacific Islands and Australia. Avian Dis 47(3 Suppl):798–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Senne DA, Panigrahy B, Kawaoka Y, Pearson JE et al (1996) Survey of the haemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site sequence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses: amino acid sequence at the HA cleavage site as a marker of pathogenicity potential Avian Dis 40(2):425–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Senne DA, Suarez DL, Stallnecht DE, Pedersen JC et al (2006) Ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza in North and South America. Dev Biol 124:37–44Google Scholar
  95. Sharp GB, Kawaoka Y, Wright SM et al (1993) Wild ducks are the reservoir for only a limited number of influenza A subtypes. Epidemiol Infect 110(1):161–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Shortridge KF, Zhou NN, Guan Y et al (1998) Characterization of avian H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in Hong Kong. Virology 252(2):331–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sims LD, Domenech J, Benigno C et al (2005) Origin and evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia. Vet Rec 157(6):159–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Songserm T, Amonsin A, Jam-on R et al (2006) Fatal avian influenza A H5N1 in a dog. Emerg Infect Dis 12(11):1744–1747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Songserm T, Amonsin A, Jam-on R et al (2006) Avian influenza H5N1 in naturally infected domestic cat. Emerg Infect Dis 12(4):681–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Songserm T, Jam-on R, Sae-Heng N et al (2006) Domestic ducks and H5N1 influenza epidemic, Thailand. Emerg Inf Dis 12(4):575–581Google Scholar
  101. Stallknecht DE (1998) Ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza viruses in wild birds populations. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Avian Influenza, 61–69Google Scholar
  102. Stallknecht DE, Shane SM (1988) Host range of avian influenza virus in free-living birds. Vet Res Commun 12(2–3):125–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Stieneke-Gröber A, Vey M, Angliker H, Shaw E et al (1992) Influenza virus hemagglutinin with multibasic cleavage site is activated by furin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease. EMBO J 11(7):2407–2414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Suarez DL, Senne DA, Banks J, Brown IH et al (2004) Recombination resulting in virulence shift in avian influenza outbreak, Chile. Emerg Infect Dis 10(4):693–699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Swayne DE, Alexander DJ (1994) Confirmation of nephrotropism and nephropathogenicity of three lowpathogenic chicken-origin influenza viruses for chickens. Avian Pathol 23(2):345–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Taubenberger JK (2005) The virulence of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus: unraveling the enigma. Arch Virol Suppl (19):101–115Google Scholar
  107. Taylor HR, Turner AJ (1977) A case report of fowl plague keratoconjunctivitis. Br J Ophthalmol 61(2):86–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Thanawongnuwech R, Amonsin A, Tantilertcharoen R et al (2005) Probable tiger-to-tiger transmission of avian influenza H5N1. Emerg Infect Dis 11(5):699–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tsukamoto K, Imada T, Tanimura N et al (2007) Impact of different husbandry conditions on contact and airborne transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus to chickens. Avian Dis 51(1):129–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Tûmová B (1980) Equine influenza—a segment in influenza virus ecology. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 3(1–2):45–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Utterback W (1984a) Update on avian influenza through February 21, 1984 in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Proceedings of the 33rd Western Poultry Disease Conference, 4–7Google Scholar
  112. Van Borm S, Thomas I, Hanquet G et al (2005) Highly Pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in smuggled Thai eagles, Belgium. Emerg Infect Dis 11(5):702–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Van Reeth K (2007) Avian and swine influenza viruses: our current understanding of the zoonotic risk. Vet Res 38(2):243–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Vey M, Orlich M, Adler S et al (1992) Hemagglutinin activation of pathogenic avian influenza viruses of serotype H7 requires the protease recognition motif R-X-K/R-R. Virology 188(1):408–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Webster RG, Bean WJ, Gorman OT et al (1992) Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol Rev 56(1):152–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Webster RG, Hinshaw VS, Bean WJ et al (1981) Characterization of an influenza A virus from seals. Virology 113(2):712–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wells RJH (1963) An outbreak of fowl plague in turkeys. Vet Rec 75:783–786Google Scholar
  118. Werner O (1998) Avian influenza — Situation in Germany 1995–1997. Proceedings of the Joint Fourth Annual Meetings of the National Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Laboratories of Countries of the European Union, Brussels, 1997, 9–10Google Scholar
  119. Werner O (1999) Avian influenza — Situation in Germany 1997/1998. Proceedings of the Joint Fifth Annual Meetings of the National Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza Laboratories of Countries of the European Union, Vienna 1998, 10–11Google Scholar
  120. Westbury HA, Turner AJ, Amon C (1981) Transmissibility of two avian influenza A virues (H7N7) between chicks. Avian Pathol 10:481–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Westbury HA, Turner AJ, Kovesdy L (1979) The pathogenicity of three Australian fowl plague viruses for chickens, turkeys and ducks. Vet Microbiol 4:223–234Google Scholar
  122. Wood GW, Banks J, Brown IH et al (1997) The nucleotide sequence of the HA1 of the haemagglutinin of an HI avian influenza virus isolate from turkesy in Germany provides additional evidence suggesting recent transmission from pigs. Avian Pathol 26(2):347–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wood GW, McCauley JW, Bashiruddin JB, Alexander DJ (1993) Deduced amino acid sequences at the haemagglutinin cleavage site of avian influenza A viruses of H5 and H7 subtypes. Arch Virol 130(1–2):209–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wright SM, Kawaoka Y, Sharp GB et al (1992) Interspecies transmission and reassortment of influenza A viruses in pigs and turkeys in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 136(4):488–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Xu X, Subbarao K, Cox NJ, Guo Y (1999) Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guandong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Virology 261(1):15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Yingst SL, Saad MD, Felt SA (2006) Quighai-like H5N1 from domestic cats, northern Iraq. Emerg Infect Dis 12(8):1295–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Yuen KY, Chan PK, Peiris M et al (1998) Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. Lancet 351(9101):467–471PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle VenezieLegnaro, PadovaItaly
  2. 2.OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian InfluenzaVLAWeybridgeUK

Personalised recommendations