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Ecology, Epidemiology and Human Health Implications of Avian Influenza Virus Infections

  • Ilaria Capua
  • Dennis J. Alexander

Abstract

Avian influenza (Al) represents one of the greatest concerns for public health that has emerged from the animal reservoir in recent times. AI, in its highly path ogenic form (HPAI), has been known to the veterinary community since the end of the 19th century, when an Italian scientist. Edoardo Perroncito, reported what is believed to be the first documented evidence of “fowl plague” as a distinct disease. However, for over 100 years, HPAI proved to be a poultry disease of rare occurrence that, in most cases, affected an irrelevant number of birds. Generally speaking, it was either self-limiting or controlled efficiently through the application of measures aimed evadicating the infection from the affected area. At approximately the turn of the millennium, however, a sharp increase in the number of outbreaks of AI in poultry occurred. It has been calculated that the impact of AI on the poultry industry has increased 100-fold, with 23 million birds affected in the 40-year period between 1959 and 1998 and over 200 million from 1999 to 2004 (Capua and Alexander 2004).

Keywords

Influenza Virus Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Avian Influenza Virus Wild Bird 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilaria Capua
    • 1
  • Dennis J. Alexander
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle VenezieLegnaro, PadovaItaly
  2. 2.OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian InfluenzaVLAWeybridgeUK

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