Two- and Three-dimensional Ultrasonography in Benign and Malignant Rectal Neoplasms

  • Sthela M. Murad Regadas
  • F. Sérgio P. Regadas


Ultrasound (US) scanning plays an important role in locoregional tumor staging and has been shown to be efficient in detecting parietal invasion and metastasized perirectal lymph nodes. This chapter discusses the role of anorectal US in evaluating the extent of tumor invasion in the rectal wall, sphincter muscles, and perirectal lymph nodes; the extent of tumor invasion following radiotherapy; and detecting early local recurrence in the rectal wall or perirectal lymph nodes. The three-dimensional scanning mode enables the examiner to stage lesions in multiple planes, measure tumor length, and determine the distance between the distal tumor border and the sphincter muscles for comparison with measurements taken after radiotherapy. This is an important aspect to consider when planning surgical resection with or without sphincter saving. In addition, the three-dimensional scanning mode is safer, as it makes it possible to review the images posteriorly, in real time, as required by some lesions.


Rectal Cancer Rectal Wall Internal Anal Sphincter Lesion Length Sphincter Muscle 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sthela M. Murad Regadas
  • F. Sérgio P. Regadas

There are no affiliations available

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