Staging and Follow-up of Anal Canal Neoplasms with 2- and 3-D Ultrasonography

  • Sthela M. Murad Regadas
  • F. Sérgio P. Regadas


Here we discuss the importance of the three-dimensional ultrasonography in evaluating malignant tumor of the anal canal as it allows quantifying the extent of tumor invasion into the sphincter muscles, adjacent tissues, and rectum, identifying lymph nodes as well. This modality is very useful in evaluating chemoradiotherapy response and selecting safe biopsy sites in case of suspicion of early recurrence.


Anal Canal Axial Plane External Anal Sphincter Internal Anal Sphincter Lesion Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stearns MW Jr, Urmacher C, Sternberg SS et al (1980) Cancer of the anal canal. Curr Probl Cancer 4:1–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Greenlee RT, Murray T, Bolden S, Wingo PA (2000) Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 50:7–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goldman S, Glimelius B, Norming U et al (1988) Transanorectal ultrasonography in anal carcinoma: a prospective study of 12 patients. Acta Radiol 29:337–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giovanini M, Bordou VJ, Bar Clay R et al (2001) Anal carcinoma: prognostic value of endorectal ultrasound. Results of a prospective multicenter study. Endoscopy 33(3)231–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    International Union Against Cancer (1997) Digestive system tumours. In: Sobin LH, Wittekind C (eds) TNM classification of malignant tumours. 5th edn. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 51–59Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tarantino D, Bernstein MA (2002) Endoanal ultrasound in the staging and management of squamosus cell carcinoma of the anal canal: potential implications of a new ultrasound staging system. Dis Colon Rectum 45(1):16–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christensen AF, Nielsen MB, Engelholm SA et al (2004) Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve staging os anal cancer compared with two-dimensional endosonography. Dis Colon Rectum 47:341–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sthela M. Murad Regadas
  • F. Sérgio P. Regadas

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations