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Ventilator-Associated Lung Injury

  • E. Crimi
  • L. Del Sorbo
  • V. M. Ranieri

Abstract

Since its introduction into clinical practice as life-sustaining therapy in the polio epidemic, mechanical ventilation has proved to be an important tool for the treatment of the respiratory failure. One of the main reasons for a patient’s admission into the intensive care unit (ICU) is to receive ventilator support [1]. According to a recent review by Esteban and co-workers [2], 66% of patients who require mechanical ventilation suffer from acute respiratory failure, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), heart failure, pneumonia, sepsis, complications of surgery and trauma. The remaining indications include coma (15%), acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13%) and neuromuscular disorders (5%). The aims of mechanical ventilation are primarily to decrease the work of breathing and to reverse life-threatening hypoxaemia or acute progressive respiratory acidosis. However, over the last two decades, research in a number of animal models has shown that mechanical ventilation itself can produce acute lung injury (ALI) [3]. The classical form of iatrogenic lung injury, recognised clinically for many decades, is the well-known barotrauma, defined as radiological evidence of extra-alveolar air [4]. The extraalveolar accumulation of air has several manifestations, of which the most threatening is tension pneumothorax.

Keywords

Mechanical Ventilation Lung Injury Acute Lung Injury Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respir Crit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Crimi
    • 1
  • L. Del Sorbo
    • 1
  • V. M. Ranieri
    • 2
  1. 1.Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, Division of Respirology, St. Michael’s HospitalUniversity of TorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, S. Giovanni Battista - Molinette HospitalUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

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