Clinical Pictures of Intrahepatic Lithiasis

  • Andrea Ruzzenente
  • Chiara Zugni
  • Alfredo Guglielmi


Intrahepatic stone disease, or hepatolithiasis, is a disease with distinctive epidemiological, pathogenetic and therapeutic features. This disease is rare in Western countries, whereas it is endemic in some Asian countries. It is defined as presence of gall-stones in intrahepatic the bile ducts, proximal to bile duct bifurcation [1]. Hepatolithiasis is primary when stones are formed de novo in the intrahepatic bile ducts, whereas it is secondary when extrahepatic gallstones migrate into the intrahepatic bile ducts [2, 3, 4]. The disease is associated with biliary stricture, primary disease of bile ducts (primitive sclerosing cholangitis, Caroli’s disease, choledochal cysts), neoplasm or parasitic infestation.


Bile Duct Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Liver Abscess Common Bile Duct Stone 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Ruzzenente
    • 1
  • Chiara Zugni
    • 1
  • Alfredo Guglielmi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery and Gastroenterology G.B. Rossi HospitalUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly

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