Anesthesia in Biliary Lithiasis

  • Anna M. Koivusalo


Laparoscopy is the ‘gold standard’ in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones because its postoperative benefits are superior to those of open cholecystectomy. The advantages of laparoscopy over open procedures in recovery are well known and acknowledged. Postoperative pain is reduced, mobilization is easier, pulmonary function is better restored, the hospital stay is shorter, and return to daily activities is possible earlier after laparoscopy than after open surgery.


Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Central Venous Pressure Plasma Renin Activity Open Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic Cholecys 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna M. Koivusalo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Liver Surgery and Transplantation ClinicUniversity HospitalHelsinkiFinland

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