Neuromuscular Control and Proprioception of the Shoulder

  • Scott M. Lephart
  • Zdenek Halata
  • Klaus L. Baumann
  • Alberto Costantini
  • Giovanni Di Giacomo
  • Todd S. Ellenbecker


Stability of the shoulder joint emanates from numerous mechanisms including articular geometry, static restraints (capsuloligamentous tissue), dynamic (muscular) stabilizers, and intra-articular forces. Capsuloligamentous structures not only provide mechanical restraint to joint subluxation, but also provide vital sensory feedback information that regulates involuntary muscular activation for joint stability (neuromuscular control).


Rotator Cuff Muscle Spindle Glenohumeral Joint Impingement Syndrome Axillary Nerve 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott M. Lephart
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zdenek Halata
    • 2
    • 3
  • Klaus L. Baumann
    • 2
  • Alberto Costantini
    • 4
  • Giovanni Di Giacomo
    • 4
  • Todd S. Ellenbecker
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Sports Medicine, Nutrition School of Health and Rehabilitation SciencesNeuromuscular Research LaboratoryPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Experimental MorphologyUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, First Faculty of MedicineCharles University PraguePragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.Arthroscopic Surgery DepartmentConcordia Hospital for Special SurgeryRomeItaly
  5. 5.Physiotherapy Associates Scottsdale Sports ClinicScottdaleUSA
  6. 6.Physiotherapy AssociatesPhiladelphiaUSA

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