Pain in the Fetus

  • G. Noia
  • E. Cesari
  • M. S. Ligato
  • D. Visconti
  • M. Tintoni
  • I. Mappa
  • C. Greco
  • G. P. Fortunato
  • A. Caruso


All the recent data about the physiology of the fetus and its active role into the womb allow us to consider the fetus as a biological protagonist in the intrauterine environment. This capacity can be detected during both the embryonic and the fetal period. The pre-implantation blastocyst is biologically autonomous, because it can provide nutriments for itself during the trip from the oviduct to the site of implantation [1] and has an active role in the choice of the implantation site [2].


Prenatal Stress Preterm Neonate Maternal Stress Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol Subplate Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Noia
    • 1
  • E. Cesari
    • 1
  • M. S. Ligato
    • 1
  • D. Visconti
    • 1
  • M. Tintoni
    • 1
  • I. Mappa
    • 1
  • C. Greco
    • 1
  • G. P. Fortunato
    • 1
  • A. Caruso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyCatholic University of Sacred HeartRomeItaly

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