Gonadal Hormones and Pain Modulation

  • A. M. Aloisi
  • I. Ceccarelli


In a number of animal and human studies, males and females have been shown to differ in their responsiveness to noxious stimuli [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. In humans, many chronic painful syndromes are more common in women than in men. For instance, certain chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome and fibromyalgia, have a lower incidence in men than in women [6, 7, 8, 9]. Additionally, male rodents typically have higher pain thresholds than females, and gonadectomy lowers the pain threshold in males. There is also a sex difference in the efficacy of the opioids widely used in experimental and clinical studies to test analgesia. For example, male rodents (but not humans) are more sensitive than females to the antinociceptive actions of morphine [10, 11, 12, 13].


Androgen Receptor Cluster Headache Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Gonadal Hormone Pain Modulation 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Aloisi
    • 1
  • I. Ceccarelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Pain and Stress Neurophysiology Lab, Department of PhysiologyUniversity of SienaSienaItaly

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