The Role of Laparoscopy in Preoperative Staging


Hilar cholangiocarcinoma often presents in an advanced stage when the disease is not resectable. Despite the evolution of imaging techniques such as CT, MRI, ultrasonography and PET scan, it is often difficult to identify small liver and peritoneal metastases at preoperative staging, and the precise extent of the disease along the hepato-duodenal ligament is difficult to determine. In about 25–46% of patients the condition of non-resectability is confirmed only at laparotomy[1 2]


Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Diagnostic Laparoscopy Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Staging Laparoscopy 
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© Springer 2008

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