At the time of diagnosis, patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are frequently found to have disease beyond the limits of surgical therapy, such the presence of intrahepatic satellite nodules, vascular invasion, or regional lymph-nodes metastases. In such patients, the resectability rate varies from 19 to 74% [1, 2, 3, 4] Moreover, exploratory laparotomy or R1 resection has a poor prognosis, with median patient survival of 5 months and postoperative complications of 17% [4] Consequently, palliative resection is not justified; instead, there is clearly a need to improve the assessment of resectability, in order to avoid unnecessary laparotomy and to develop an aggressive approach to obtain complete resection (R0).


Hepatic Resection Negative Prognostic Factor Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Hepatoduodenal Ligament Intrahepatic Metastasis 
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