Surgery for Rectal Prolapse: General Criteria for the Selection of the Best Treatment

  • Giovanni Romano
  • Francesco Bianco
  • Luisa Caggiano


Rectal prolapse is an intussusception of the rectum, which may be classified as mucosal, internal (occult) or complete (full thickness). Mucosal prolapse is a protrusion of the mucosa only without sliding of the muscular layer, which remains in place. Internal rectal prolapse does not come down beyond the anal canal and, frequently, is not associated with any symptoms; it is likely to be a precursor of a complete prolapse. Complete rectal prolapse is a full-thickness protrusion through the anal canal.


Pelvic Floor Anal Canal Pelvic Floor Muscle Rectal Prolapse Lateral Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hamalainen KPJ, Raivio P, Antila S et al (1996) Biofeedback therapy in rectal prolapse patients. Dis Colon Rectum 39:262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schiedeck THK, Shwandner O, Scheele J et al (2005) Rectal prolapse: which surgical option is appropriate? Langenbecks Arch Surg 390:8–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gourgiotis S, Baratsis S (2007) Rectal prolapse. Int J Colorectal Dis 22:231–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aitola PT, Hiltunen KM, Matikainen MJ (1999) Functional results of operative treatment of rectal prolapse over an 11-years period: emphasis on transabdominal approach. Dis Colon Rectum 42:655–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mollen RM, Kuijpers HC, van Hoek F (2000) Effects of rectal mobilization and lateral ligaments division on colonic and anorectal function. Dis Colon Rectum 43:1283–1287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lukkonen P, Mikkonen U, Jarvinen H (1992) Abdominal rectopexy with sigmoidectomy vs rectopexy alone for rectal prolapse: a prospective, randomized study. Int J Colorectal Dis 7:219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McKee RF, Lauder JC, Poon FW et al (1992) A prospective randomized study of abdominal rectopexy with and without sigmoidectomy in rectal prolapse. Surg Gynecol Obstet 174:145–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lechaux D, Trebuchet G, Siproudhis L et al (2005) Laparoscopic rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse. Surg Endosc 19:514–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Salomon MJ, Young CJ, Eyers AA et al (2002) Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic versus open abdominal rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Br J Surg 89:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raftopoulos Y, Seragore AJ, Bergamaschi R et al (2005) Recurrence rates after abdominal surgery for complete rectal prolapse: a multicenter pooled analysis of 643 individual patient data. Dis Colon Rectum 48:1200–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tsunoda A, Yasuda N, Yokoyama N et al (2003) Delorme’s procedure for rectal prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum 46:1260–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Watts AM, Thompson MR (2000) Evaluation of Delorme’s procedure as a treatment for full-thickness rectal prolapse. Br J Surg 87:218–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takesue Y, Yokoyama T, Murakami Y (1999) The effectiveness of perineal sigmoidectomy for the treatment of rectal prolapse. Surg Today 29:290–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johansen OB, Wexner SD, Daniel N (1993) Perineal rectosigmoidectomy in the elderly. Dis Colon Rectum 36:767–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Agachan F, Reissman P, Pfeifer J et al (1997) Comparison of three perineal procedures for the treatment of rectal prolapse. South Med J 90:925–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steele SR, Goetz LH, Minami S et al (2006) Management of recurrent rectal prolapse: surgical approach influences outcome. Dis Colon Rectum 49:440–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pikarskj AJ, Joo JS, Wexner SD et al (2000) Recurrent rectal prolapse: what is the next good option? Dis Colon Rectum 43:1273–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hool GR, Hull TL, Fazio VW (1997) Surgical treatment of recurrent complete rectal prolapse: a thirtyyear experience. Dis Colon Rectum 40:270–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fengler SA, Pearl RK, Prased ML et al (1997) Management of recurrent rectal prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum 40:832–834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Romano
    • 1
  • Francesco Bianco
    • 1
  • Luisa Caggiano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery I“S.G. Moscati” HospitalAvellinoItaly

Personalised recommendations