Basics pp 3-9 | Cite as

Anatomy and Physiology in Neonates and Children

  • Marinella Astuto
  • Anna L. Paratore
  • Antonino Gullo
Part of the Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain in Neonates and Children book series (AICPNC)


Pediatric anesthesia involves patients ranging from preterm infants to teenagers, and these groups require different anesthetic equipment and techniques. Successful and safe anesthetic management in pediatric patients depends on an appreciation and clear understanding of the physiological, anatomic, pharmacological and psychological differences among the pediatric age groups and between pediatric and adult patients. Changes in the airways, cardiovascular system, renal function, central and autonomic nervous system, gastrointestinal system and thermoregulation that take place during development make anesthetic management different and extremely challenging. Pediatric anesthesia management requires an understanding and knowledge of the differences and characteristics unique to the child and infant. Infants and children have unique anatomic, physiological, pharmacological, and psychological issues relating to perioperative management [1].


Preterm Infant Functional Residual Capacity Airway Smooth Muscle Contraction Anesthetic Equipment Postoperative Apnea 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marinella Astuto
    • 1
  • Anna L. Paratore
    • 2
  • Antonino Gullo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Pediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care SectionCatania University HospitalCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Postgraduate School of Anesthesia and Intensive CareCatania University HospitalCataniaItaly

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