Radiological Evaluation of Myelomeningocele — Chiari II Malformation

  • Charles Raybaud
  • Elka Miller


Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a malformation characterized by the failure of closure of the neural tube, usually (but not only) at the lumbo-sacral level. Synonyms are spina bifida aperta, open spinal dysra — phism, and Chiari II malformation complex. MMC is typically associated with a metamerically consistent paraplegia, a posterior fossa deformity known as the Chiari II malformation, hydrocephalus, and a constellation of central nervous system (CNS) dysplasias. It is the most common malformation of the CNS worldwide, with an incidence evaluated at 0.4–1 per 1000 live births, and is one of the leading causes of infantile paralysis in the world today. In developed countries incidence is decreasing thanks to antenatal screening procedures, as well as dietary supplementation with folic acid to the women at risk prior to and during pregnancy [1, 2].


Posterior Fossa Fourth Ventricle Neural Tube Defect Cervical Canal Foramen Magnum 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Raybaud
    • 1
  • Elka Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Hospital for Sick Children and University of TorontoOntarioCanada

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