Intellectual Outcome in Spina Bifida

  • Pietro Spennato
  • Luciano Savarese
  • Giuseppe Cinalli


In most of the series in the literature [1–4], the mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of patients with open spina bifida has been reported to be within the normal range, but usually lower than that of the general population. In a recent case-control study, [1] found a statistically significant correlation between having a myelomeningocele and having a lower IQ. However, this data may be inaccurate, as typically only one aspect of cognitive functioning, namely nonverbal visuospatial reasoning, was assessed. Other skills that may better reflect the difficulties encountered by these patients, such as verbal responses or skilled manipulative ability were often not tested.


Spina Bifida Intelligence Quotient Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy Chiari Malformation Shunt Revision 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pietro Spennato
    • 1
  • Luciano Savarese
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Cinalli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeurosurgerySantobono-Pausilipon Children’s HospitalNaplesItaly

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