Patient Selection and Treatment Evaluation

  • Carlo Ratto
  • Angelo Parello
  • Lorenza Donisi
  • Francesco Litta
  • Giovanni B. Doglietto


Criteria for patient selection to a certain treatment are of central importance in the management of fecal incontinence (FI). Even though the understanding of continence physiology has improved, there persists a lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding the very complex mechanisms by which various structures contribute to the regulation of continence control. It is now assumed that a continuous modulation of different stimuli is necessary to effectively maintain the various functions involved with continence. On the other hand, the instruments available to measure or analyze parameters associated with continence, albeit numerous and sometimes sophisticated, are not used in a standardized manner, so that data obtained at one center are not comparable with those obtained in another. Also, the entire diagnostic workup is still debatable, being routinely limited to clinical examination in the opinion of some, whereas others recommend extensive evaluation. However, other aspects must be considered in the decision-making process surrounding treatment choice.


Fecal Incontinence Anal Sphincter External Anal Sphincter Sacral Nerve Stimulation Sacral Neuromodulation 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Ratto
  • Angelo Parello
  • Lorenza Donisi
  • Francesco Litta
  • Giovanni B. Doglietto

There are no affiliations available

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