Hemodynamics in Standard Cardiac Pacing

  • Milos Taborsky
Conference paper


The first rate-responsive pacing systems were introduced by Center [1] and Lagergren [2] in 1964–1966. Both systems used P waves, which were detected with an atrial electrode positioned by thoracotomy or mediastinoscopy to trigger the ventricular pacing after a short delay. A comparison of the acute data with VVI pacing showed that the cardiac index increased by 10–30%. Despite these promising data, atrioventricular (AV) synchronous pacemakers were not widely used until the late 1970s.


Left Bundle Branch Block Ventricular Pace Complete Heart Block Atrial Contraction Sick Sinus Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milos Taborsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiology DepartmentNa Homolce HospitalPragueCzech Republic

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