Heart-Failure Management: Focus on Heart-Failure Practice Guidelines

  • Eugene Crystal
  • Rajneesh Calton
Conference paper


Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high burden of mortality and morbidity, reduced quality of life, and increasing healthcare costs [1, 2]. HF is largel y a disease of old age, and it is becoming increasingly prevalent with the gradual aging of the global population [3]. HF is a complex syndrome in which abnormal heart function results in, or increases the subsequent risk of clinical symptoms and signs of low cardiac output and/or pulmonary and systemic congestion [4].


Chronic Heart Failure Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Optimal Medical Therapy Isosorbide Dinitrate 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Crystal
    • 1
  • Rajneesh Calton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Schulich Heart Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences CentreUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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