CT Diagnosis and Management of Focal Lung Disease: Small Pulmonary Nodules

  • C. I. Henschke


The increasing use of CT, whether for screening for lung cancer or for other reasons, has led to the increasing detection of small pulmonary nodules. It was the development of the knowledge base needed to make scientific recommendations for the work-up of these small nodules that led us to the topic of CT screening for lung cancer [1].


Small Pulmonary Nodule Weill Medical College Anatomic Term Determine Growth Rate Scientific Recommendation 


  1. 1.
    Henschke CI, Miettien OS, Yankelevitz DF et al (1994) Radiographic screening for cancer: proposed paradigm for requisite research. Clin Imag 18:16–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Henschke CI, McCauley DI, Yankelevitz DF et al (1999) Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet 354:99–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Smith JP, Miettinen OS (2001) International Early Lung Cancer Action Program: origins, aims, principles and protocol. Lung Cancer 35:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators (2006) Survival of patients with stage I lung cancer detected on CT screening. N Engl J Med 355:1763–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I-ELCAP protocol. www.ielcap.org (last access March 2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    International Conferences on Screening for Lung Cancer. 1st to 15th Conferences. Website: http://www.ielcap.org (last access March 2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators (2007) CT Screening for Lung Cancer: individualizing the benefit of the screening (submitted)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    MacMahon H, Austin JM, Gamsu G et al (2005) Guidelines for management of small pulmonary nodules detected on CT scans: a statement from the Fleischner Society. Radiology 237:395–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF, Mirtcheva R et al (2002) CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency and significance of part-solid and non-solid nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol 78:1053–1057Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yankelevitz DF, Gupta R, Zhao B, Henschke CI (1999) Repeat CT scanning for evaluation of small pulmonary nodules. Radiology 212:561–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yankelevitz DF, Reeves AP, Kostis WJ et al (2000) Determination of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules based on volumetrically determined growth rates. Radiology 217:251–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yankelevitz DF, Reeves A, Kostis W et al (2000) Determination of malignancy in small pulmonary nodules based on volumetrically determined growth rates: preliminary results. Radiology 217:251–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kostis WJ, Reeves AP, Yankelevitz DF, Henschke CI (2003) Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 22:1259–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kostis WJ, Yankelevitz DF, Reeves AP et al (2004) Small pulmonary nodules: reproducibility of three-dimensional volumetric measurement and estimation of time to follow-up CT. Radiology 231:446–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Libby D, Wu N, Lee I et al (2006) CT Screening for lung cancer: the value of short-term CT follow-up. Chest 129:1039–1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. I. Henschke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyWeill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations