Principles of Segmental Analysis


Once the laterality, visceroatrial arrangement, and cardiac position of the fetus have been established, the next step is to analyze the heart in a sequential segmental approach. Sequential analysis allows description of all congenital heart malformations, even the more complex ones, simply and unambiguously [1, 2, 3]. All hearts, whether normal or abnormal, can be assumed to comprise three major segments and two connections between those segments. Each segment is usually partitioned into one left-sided and one right-sided component. The three segments are the atria, the ventricles, and the arterial trunks. The connections consist of the atrioventricular connection and the ventriculoarterial connection. A fourth segment — the systemic and pulmonary veins, and its connection — the venoatrial connection, must be assessed for a complete segmental analysis. This is not discussed in this chapter because of the great variability of these structures.


Atrioventricular Valve Segmental Analysis Semilunar Valve Arterial Trunk Echocardiographic View 
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