Advertisement

Principles of Segmental Analysis

Abstract

Once the laterality, visceroatrial arrangement, and cardiac position of the fetus have been established, the next step is to analyze the heart in a sequential segmental approach. Sequential analysis allows description of all congenital heart malformations, even the more complex ones, simply and unambiguously [1, 2, 3]. All hearts, whether normal or abnormal, can be assumed to comprise three major segments and two connections between those segments. Each segment is usually partitioned into one left-sided and one right-sided component. The three segments are the atria, the ventricles, and the arterial trunks. The connections consist of the atrioventricular connection and the ventriculoarterial connection. A fourth segment — the systemic and pulmonary veins, and its connection — the venoatrial connection, must be assessed for a complete segmental analysis. This is not discussed in this chapter because of the great variability of these structures.

Keywords

Atrioventricular Valve Segmental Analysis Semilunar Valve Arterial Trunk Echocardiographic View 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Shinebourne EA, Macartney FJ, Anderson RH (1976) Sequential chamber localization — logical approach to diagnosis in congenital heart disease. Br Heart J 38:327–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tynan MJ, Becker AE, Macartney FJ et al (1979) Nomenclature and classification of congenital heart disease. Br Heart J 41:544–553CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson RH, Becker AE, Freedom RM et al (1984) Sequential segmental analysis of congenital heart disease. Pediatr Cardiol 5:281–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sharma S, Devine W, Anderson RH et al (1988) The determination of atrial arrangement by examination of appendage morphology in 1842 heart specimens. Br Heart J 60:227–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Huta JC, Smallhorn JF, Macartney FJ (1982) Two-dimensional echocardiographic diagnosis of situs. Br Heart J 48:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Personalised recommendations