The Cardiac Position and Axis Orientation


Although in most individuals two thirds of the heart is in the left side of the chest, the heart can be unusually positioned. All cardiac positions can be described in terms of overall location of the heart and orientation of its axis. The cardiac position and ax-is can be assessed by fetal echocardiography in the four-chamber view. In this view, by tracing the sagittal and coronal planes through the center of the thorax, four quadrants are identified. In the normal individual, the left ventricle, most of the right ventricle, and the anterior part of the left atrium, lie in the left anterior quadrant. A small part of the right ventricle and most of the right atrium fall in the right anterior quadrant, and the posterior part of the left atrium is in in the posterior quadrants (Fig.4.1) [1].
Fig. 4.1

Cross-sectional four-chamber view of a normal 21-week gestational-age fetus. The four quadrants, identified by the sagittal and coronal planes (white dashed lines) traced in the center of the thorax, are shown (see text for details.) LA left atrium, LV left ventricle, RA right atrium, RV right ventricle, S spine


Axis Orientation Situs Inversus Yellow Arrow Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Cardiac Axis 
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