Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Assessment of the Fetal Heart

  • Rabih Chaoui


In the last 10 years, 3D and live 3D ultrasound — also called 4D ultrasound (3D/4D) — became popular in prenatal diagnosis but focused mainly on the demonstration of the fetal face and other external fetal body parts (hands, feet, etc.). The use of the 3D/4D in assessing the fetal heart evolved rapidly with the advent of the new technique called spatial and temporal image correlation (STIC), which enabled acquisition of a volume data set with information pertaining to the beating fetal heart [1, 2]. Matrix transducers for live 4D examination are already available, but the resolution is still too low to be routinely used in fetal studies, and the expenses are still high.


Fetal Heart Fetal Echocardiography Atrioventricular Septal Defect Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Aortic Arch Transverse 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

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  • Rabih Chaoui

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