Fluid and electrolyte emergency

  • J. Boldt
Conference paper


Fluid deficits and electrolyte imbalances are common among surgical, traumatised and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fluid deficits can occur in the absence of obvious fluid loss secondary to vasodilation or generalised alterations of the endothelial barrier resulting in diffuse capillary leak. Thus, especially in the inflammatory patient, large fluid deficits become obvious. This situation is characterised by panendothelial injury with subsequent development of increased endothelial permeability, leading to a loss of proteins and a fluid shift from the intravascular to the interstitial compartment and resulting in interstitial oedema. Fluid deficits (or overload) are often associated with compromised acid-base status and electrolyte imbalance (Fig. 1).


Total Body Water Volume Replacement Crystalloid Solution Fluid Deficit Cardiac Filling Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Boldt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineKlinikum der Stadt LudwigshafenGermany

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