Diagnosis and Management of Vascular Malformations of Bone
Vascular malformations of bone are extremely complex lesions that can present with a myriad of symptomologies. Ethanol endovascular and direct puncture embolization can cure or significantly obliterate these lesions at long-term follow-up. Further, ethanol sclerotherapy in conjunction with coil embolization can treat massive lesions and cure them at long-term follow-up. In low-flow lesions, direct puncture injection of the vein malformation can be curative, lead to new bone formation or obliteration of the vascular cyst, and obviate the need for complex surgeries and their attendant complications.
Vascular malformations, whether of soft tissues or bones, should be managed in centers that routinely treat these lesions. In this fashion, complications can be better managed, minimizing patient morbidity, and practitioners can gain greater experience. Significant experience leads to improved judgment and the refinement of techniques for the management of these challenging lesions.
KeywordsVascular Malformation Bone Cyst Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Venous Malformation Direct Puncture
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