Treatment of Venous Malformations

  • Raul Mattassi


Treatment of venous malformations (VM) is based on the following concepts: conservative treatment, sclerotherapy, laser treatment and surgery. Conservative treatment with elastic stockings is recommended mainly in minor cases with little discomfort. Sclerotherapy may be performed with classic sclerosis, foam and absolute alcohol. Foam sclerosis, performed with a mixture of sclerosant fluid and gas (such as air or other gases) has been reported to offer good results, although experience in this area is only recently beginning to grow. Alcohol sclerosis, with radioscopic control of the injected area, is one of the preferred treatments for VM. Laser application is possible by percutaneous, superficial and intravascular approaches. Percutaneous puncture with fiber introduction through the needle allows extratruncular limited forms or infiltrating forms to be treated. An intravascular approach may be useful to close superficial dysplastic veins.


Varicose Vein Venous Malformation Superficial Vein Marginal Vein Port Wine Stain 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raul Mattassi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vascular Surgery Center for Vascular Malformations “Stefan Belov”“G. Salvini” HospitalGarbagnate Milanese (Milan)Italy

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