Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations

  • Dirk A. Loose


Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) can be treated by endovascular embolization, surgery, sclerotherapy and laser. Endovascular embolization is today the most frequent treatment, followed by surgery. Sclerotherapy and laser treatments are other possibilities. Treatment strategy depends on the type, symptoms and evolution of the defect. Truncular forms are treated mainly by surgery while the techniques listed may be used alone or in combination when treating extratruncular defects.


Laser Treatment Vascular Malformation Extended Form Frequent Treatment Limb Length Discrepancy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Belov S (2000) Vascular malformations and hemangiomas: Surgical treatment. In: Chang JB (ed) Textbook of angiology. Springer, New York, pp 1284–1293Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belov S, Loose DA, Weber J (eds) (1989) Vascular malformations. Einhorn-Presse Verlag, Reinbek/Hamburg, pp 29–30Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loose DA (1997) Malformaciones vasculares. Sistemática para el diagnóstico radiológico y la terapéutica. Forum FL 2:101–108Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Loose DA (1997) Therapie angeborener Gefäßmißbildungen. In: Göroch J, Brambs H-J, Sunder-Plassmann L (eds) Endovaskuläre Chirurgie “State-of-the-Art” Symposium, W Zuckrschwerdt, München, Bern, Wien, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Loose DA (1999) Modern concepts and combined treatment of congenital vascular malformations. XXIst European Congress of the International College of Surgeons. Prague, Czech Republic, June 2–5. In: Milos Hajek: Abstracts of the Congress, Galéu, PragueGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Loose DA, Weber J (1997) Angeborene Gefäßmißbildungen. Interdisziplinäre Diagnostik und Therapie von Hämangiomen (Angiodysplasien). Periodica Angiologica, Vol 21, Nordland-Druck, LüneburgGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Loose DA, Belov S, Mattassi R et al (2001) Long follow-up results in active causal treatment of vascular malformations. A review of 1378 cases (Multicenter Study). In: Clement D, Rieger H (ed) Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the European Chapter of the International Union of Angiology. Cologne, Germany, Monduzzi Edit, Bologna, pp 431–450Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Loose DA (2000) Vascular malformations and hemangiomas: clinical features and their basis. In: Chang JB (ed) Textbook of angiology. Springer, New York, pp 1248–1257Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Loose DA (2008) Contemporary treatment of congenital vascular malformations. In: Dieter R (ed) Textbook: Peripheral arterial disease. Mc Graw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lumley JSP (1986) A colour atlas of vascular surgery. Wolfe Medical Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mattassi R (1990) Surgical treatment of congenital arteriovenous defects. Int Angiol 9(3):196–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shoab SS, Scurr JH (2000) Arteriovenous malformations of the upper limb. In: Chang JB (ed) Textbook of angiology. Springer, New York, pp 1270–1277Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weber J (2000) Radiological diagnostic strategies and interventional radiology. In: Chang JB (ed) Textbook of angiology. Springer, New York, pp 1261–1269Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belov S (1993) Correction of lower limbs length discrepancy in congenital vascular-bone diseases by vascular surgery performed during childhood. Seminars in Vasc Surg 6(4):245–251Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dirk A. Loose
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Circulatory Disturbances and Vascular Defects Department for Angiology and Vascular SurgeryFacharztklinik HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations