Classification of Vascular Malformations

  • Raul Mattassi
  • Dirk A. Loose
  • Massimo Vaghi


As congenital vascular malformations (CVM) are a complex mixture of different vessels, classification is difficult. In the past, different descriptions, syndromes with common names and complex classifications have been used to define these diseases. Only recently, two main classifications, more or less accepted, have been proposed: the Mulliken Classification, based on flow velocity in the defect, and the Hamburg Classification, based on the vessels’ embryological development. Both of these classifications are imperfect. A combination of both may offer the best option to define these pathologies clearly.


Vascular Malformation Vascular Anomaly Venous Malformation Embryological Development Lymphatic Malformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raul Mattassi
    • 1
  • Dirk A. Loose
    • 2
  • Massimo Vaghi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vascular Surgery, Center for Vascular Malformations “Stefan Belov”“G. Salvini” HospitalGarbagnate Milanese (Milan)Italy
  2. 2.Center for Circulatory Disturbances and Vascular Defects, Department for Angiology and Vascular SurgeryFacharztklinik HamburgHamburgGermany

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