Epidemiology of Vascular Malformations
There are few reports on the epidemiology of congenital vascular malformations (CVM). We performed a study on 3,573 3 year old children and found 43 cases of CVM or related symptoms: an incidence of 1.2%. Infiltrating or localized venous and/or arteriovenous (AV) defects were noticed in 16 cases (37%), port wine stain in 15 cases (35%), lymphedema, lymphatic defects in 5 (12%), phlebectasia with nevus and limb length discrepancy in 5 (12%) and phlebectasia in 2 cases (4%).
Vascular malformations (VM) arise from an error in morphogenesis in any combination of arterial, venous and lymphatic vascular networks. These vascular anomalies are present at birth, grow proportionally to the size of the child and do not exhibit any tendency to involute spontaneously. Hormonal factors, such as the gestational hormonal reaction by infants, puberty, or pregnancy, may influence the growth of these vascular lesions, causing acceleration in size during these periods. Physical (hemodynamic) exercise, direct trauma or infection may also trigger a rapid expansion . Genetic loci  and related syndromes  have also been discovered and have shed new light on the clinical behavior of vascular malformations.
KeywordsVascular Malformation Spina Bifida Venous Malformation Limb Length Discrepancy Lymphatic Malformation
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