Epidemiology of Vascular Malformations

  • Géza Tasnádi


There are few reports on the epidemiology of congenital vascular malformations (CVM). We performed a study on 3,573 3 year old children and found 43 cases of CVM or related symptoms: an incidence of 1.2%. Infiltrating or localized venous and/or arteriovenous (AV) defects were noticed in 16 cases (37%), port wine stain in 15 cases (35%), lymphedema, lymphatic defects in 5 (12%), phlebectasia with nevus and limb length discrepancy in 5 (12%) and phlebectasia in 2 cases (4%).

Vascular malformations (VM) arise from an error in morphogenesis in any combination of arterial, venous and lymphatic vascular networks. These vascular anomalies are present at birth, grow proportionally to the size of the child and do not exhibit any tendency to involute spontaneously. Hormonal factors, such as the gestational hormonal reaction by infants, puberty, or pregnancy, may influence the growth of these vascular lesions, causing acceleration in size during these periods. Physical (hemodynamic) exercise, direct trauma or infection may also trigger a rapid expansion [1]. Genetic loci [2] and related syndromes [3] have also been discovered and have shed new light on the clinical behavior of vascular malformations.


Vascular Malformation Spina Bifida Venous Malformation Limb Length Discrepancy Lymphatic Malformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tasnádi G, Osztovics M (1977) Pathogenesis of angiodysplasias. Acta Paediatr Acad Sc Hung 18:301–309Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vikkula M, Boon LM, Mulliken JB (2001) Molecular genetics of vascular malformations. Matrix Biol 20:327–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mueller-Lessman V, Behrendt A, Wetzel WE et al (2001) Orofacial findings in the Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Int J Paediatr Dent 11:225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pratt AG (1967) Birthmarks in infants. Arch Dermatol Syph 67:302Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tasnádi G (1993) Epidemiology and etiology of congenital vascular malformations. Semin Vasc Surg 6:200–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lilienfeld AM (1969) Population differences in frequency of malformations at birth. In: Fraser FC, McKusick VA (eds) Congenital malformations. Proceedings of the third international conference. The Hague, The Netherlands, 7–13 Sept, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam/New York, p 251Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith DW (1970) Recognizable patterns of human malformations. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miller AC, Pit-Ten Cate IM, Watson HS (1999) Stress and family satisfaction in parents of children with facial port-wine stains. Pediatr Dermatol 16:190–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geronemus RG, Ashinoff R (1991) The medical necessity of evaluation and treatment of portwine stains. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 17:76–79PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Géza Tasnádi
    • 1
  1. 1.BudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations