Circulatory Failure: Bedside Functional Hemodynamic Monitoring

  • C. Sorbara
  • S. Romagnoli
  • A. Rossi
  • S. M. Romano
Part of the Topics in Anaesthesia and Critical Care book series (TIACC)


Four basic classes of circulatory shock can be clinically defined: hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and distributive. Looking at the physiology of cardiac performance, taking a pathophysiologic approach we can distinguish between hypovolemic shock, distributive shock, systolic cardiogenic shock, diastolic cardiogenic shock, or a mix of them. All these types evolve, if not treated early and adequately, towards end-organ failure (dysoxia, microcirculatory failure). Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) accounts for most deaths in the intensive care unit (ICU). Disturbances in systemic hemodynamics and organ perfusion resulting in tissue hypoxia appear to play a key role in the onset and maintenance of MODS.


Right Ventricular Inferior Vena Cava Fluid Responsiveness Pulse Pressure Variation Stroke Volume Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Sorbara
    • 1
  • S. Romagnoli
    • 1
  • A. Rossi
    • 1
  • S. M. Romano
    • 1
  1. 1.Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular DepartmentUniversity Hospital CareggiFlorenceItaly

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