Etiology and Pathophysiology of Heart Failure

  • P. Foëx
  • G. Howard-Alpe
Part of the Topics in Anaesthesia and Critical Care book series (TIACC)


In the United States there are 4.9 million people with heart failure, 50% of whom will be dead within 5 years. There are also over 400 000 new cases reported annually [1], with approximately 43 000 deaths. The number of hospital admissions resulting from heart failure approaches 900 000 per annum and represents 20% of all admissions of patients over 65 years of age. Over the past four decades, the number of deaths caused by heart failure has increased from 10 in 1000 to 50 in 1000 [2].


Heart Failure Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Diastolic Dysfunction Pressure Overload Ventricular Failure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Foëx
    • 1
  • G. Howard-Alpe
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuffield Department of AnaestheticsUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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