Treatment of Cachexia in the Elderly

  • Shing-Shing Yeh
  • Michael W. Schuster


Numerous studies have shown that weight loss is associated with an increase in mortality [1] [4]. Treating weight loss in the elderly can ameliorate many medical conditions. For example, rehabilitation time following post-hip fractures has been shown to decrease with nutritional supplementation [5]. In hospitalised geriatric patients, nutritional supplementation resulted in improvement in serum protein, nutritional status, and decreased mortality [6]. In a subset of geriatric inpatients, low serum albumin with weight loss predicts those patients at highest risk for dying during the subsequent 2 years [7]. Riquelme and Torres et al. [8] carried out a multivariate analysis of risk and prognostic factors in community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly and found that age by itself was not a significant factor related to prognosis. Among the significant risk factors, only nutritional status is amenable to medical intervention. In the cachectic elderly, medical, cognitive, and psychiatric disorders may diminish self-sufficiency in activities of daily living (ADL), thus reducing the quality of life and increasing the frequency of secondary procedures, hospitalisations, and need for skilled care [2, 9].


Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Megestrol Acetate Cancer Cachexia Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient Creatine Supplementation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sullivan DH, Walls RC (1994) Impact of nutritional status on morbidity in a population of geriatric rehabilitation patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 42:471–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sullivan DH (1995) Impact of nutritional status on health outcomes of nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 43:195–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sullivan DH, Walls RC, Bopp MM (1995) Proteinenergy undernutrition and the risk of mortality within one year of hospital discharge: a follow-up study. J Am Geriatr Soc 43:507–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sullivan DH (1995) The role of nutrition in increased morbidity and mortality. Clin Geriatr Med 11:661–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bastow MD, Rawlings J, Allison SP (1983) Benefits of supplementary tube feeding after fractured neck of femur: a randomized controlled trial. Br Med J 287:1589–1592Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Woo J, Ho SC, Mak YT et al (1994) Nutritional status of elderly patients during recovery from chest infection and the role of nutritional supplementation assessed by a prospective randomized single-blind trial. Age Ageing 23:40–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McMurtry C, Rosenthal A (1995) Predictors of 2-year mortality among older male veterans on a geriatric rehabilitation unit. J Am Geriatr Soc 43:1123–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Riquelme R, Torres A, El-Ebiary M et al (1996) Community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154:1450–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sullivan D, Walls R (1994) Impact of nutritional status on morbidity in a population of geriatric rehabilitation patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 42:471–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Morley J, Kraenzle D (1994) Causes of weight loss in a community nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc 42:583–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robbins LJ (1989) Evaluation of weight loss in the elderly. Geriatrics 44:31–34,37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kayser-Jones J (2001) Starved for attention. Reflect Nurs Leadersh 27:10–14,45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rolls BJ, Dimeo KA, Shide DJ (1995) Age-related impairments in the regulation of food intake. Am J Clin Nutr 62:923–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moriguti JC, Das SK, Saltzman E et al (2000) Effects of a 6-week hypocaloric diet on changes in body composition, hunger, and subsequent weight regain in healthy young and older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:B580–B587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roberts SB, Fuss P, Heyman MB et al (1994) Control of food intake in older men. JAMA 272:1601–1606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberts SB (2000) Regulation of energy intake in relation to metabolic state and nutritional status. Eur J Clin Nutr 54(Suppl 3):S64–S69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCrory MA, Fuss PJ, McCallum JE et al (1999) Dietary variety within food groups: association with energy intake and body fatness in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 69:440–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schiffman SS (1997) Taste and smell losses in normal aging and disease. JAMA 278:1357–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    White HK, McConnell ES, Bales CW, Kuchibhatla M (2004) A 6-month observational study of the relationship between weight loss and behavioral symptoms in institutionalized Alzheimer’s disease subjects. J Am Med Dir Assoc 5:89–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Simmons, SF, Osterweil D, Schnelle JF (2001) Improving food intake in nursing home residents with feeding assistance: a staffing analysis. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M790–M794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Murphy DJ, Santilli S (1998) Elderly patients’ preferences for long-term life support. Arch Fam Med 7:484–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abitbol V, Selinger-Leneman H, Gallais Y et al (2002) Percutaneous endoscopie gastrostomy in elderly patients. A prospective study in a geriatric hospital. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 26:448–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mitchell, SL, Tetroe JM (2000) Survival after percutaneous endoscopie gastrostomy placement in older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:M735–M739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gomez Ramos, MJ, Saturno Hernandez PJ (2002) Parenteral nutrition in a general hospital: quality criteria and factors associated with compliance. Med Clin (Barc) 119:686–689Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shintani S, Fumimura Y, Shiigai T et al (2001) Feeding methods for long-term bedridden patients with dysphagia under home health care—percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH). Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 28(Suppl l):61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ling PR, Khaodhiar L, Bistrian BR et al (2001) Inflammatory mediators in patients receiving longterm home parenteral nutrition. Dig Dis Sci 46:2484–2489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    McNamara M, Alexander H, Norton J (1992) Cytokines and their role in the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia. JPEN J Parenter Enterai Nutr 16(Suppl 6):S50–S55Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tisdale M (1997) Biology of cachexia. J Natl Cancer Inst 89:1763–1773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tisdale M, McDevitt TM, Todorov PT et al (1996) Catabolic factors in cancer cachexia. In vivo 10:131–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tisdale MJ (2003) The ‘cancer cachectic factor’. Support Care Cancer 11:73–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tisdale MJ (2002) Cachexia in cancer patients. Nat Rev Cancer 2:862–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tisdale MJ (2001) Cancer anorexia and cachexia. Nutrition 17:438–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kotier DP, Grunfeld C (1995) Pathophysiology and treatment of the AIDS wasting syndrome. AIDS Clin Rev 96:229–275Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tokuda Y, Koketsu H (2002) High mortality in hospitalized elderly patients with feeding tube placement. Intern Med 41:613–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yeh SS, Hafner A, Schuster MW et al (2003) Relationship between body composition and cytokines in cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:890–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yeh SS, Schuster MW (1999) Geriatric cachexia: the role of cytokines. Am J Clin Nutr 70:183–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yeh SS, Schuster MW (2000) Reply to JL Caddell. Am J Clin Nutr 71:852–853Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yeh SS, Wu SY, Levine DM et al (2001) The correlation of cytokine levels with body weight after megestrol acetate treatment in geriatric patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M48–M54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Morgan L (1985) Megestrol acetate versus tamoxifen in advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. Semin Oncol 12:43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Muss HB, Case LD, Capizzi RL et al (1990) High-versus standard dose megestrol acetate in woman with advanced breast cancer: a phase III trial of the Piedmont Oncology Association. J Clin Oncol 8:1797–1805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tchekmedyian NS, Zahyna D, Halpert C, Heber D (1992) Clinical aspects of nutrition in advanced cancer. Oncology 49(Suppl 2):3–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tchekmedyian NS, Hickman M, Siau J et al (1992) Megestrol acetate in cancer anorexia and weight loss. Cancer 69:1268–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tchekmedyian NS, Tait N, Moody M, Aisner J (1987) High-dose megestrol acetate. A possible treatment for cachexia. JAMA 257:1195–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pascual Lopez A, Roquei Figuls M, Urrutia Cuchi G et al (2004) Systematic review of megestrol acetate in the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. J Pain Symptom Manage 27:360–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Von Roenn JH, Armstrong D, Kotier DP et al (1994) Megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS-related cachexia. Ann Intern Med 121:393–399Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Von Roenn JH (1994) Randomized trials of megestrol acetate for AIDS-associated anorexia and cachexia. Oncology 51:19–24Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Von Roenn JH, Murphy RL, Weber KM et al (1988) Megestrol acetate for treatment of cachexia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med 10:840–841Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yeh SS, Wu SY, Lee TP et al (2000) Improvement in quality-of-life measures and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate oral suspension in geriatric cachexia: results of a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Simmons SF, Walker KA, Osterweil D (2004) The effect of megestrol acetate on oral food and fluid intake in nursing home residents: a pilot study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 5:24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Morley JE (2002) Orexigenic and anabolic agents. Clin Geriatr Med 18:853–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Karcic E, Philpot C, Morley JE (2002) Treating malnutrition with megestrol acetate: literature review and review of our experience. J Nutr Health Aging 6:191–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lambert CP, Sullivan DH, Freeling SA et al (2002) Effects of testosterone replacement and/or resistance exercise on the composition of megestrol acetate stimulated weight gain in elderly men: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:2100–2106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hamburger AW, Parnes H, Gordon GB et al (1988) Megestrol acetate induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. Semin Oncol 15:76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Reitmeier M, Hartenstein R (1990) Megestrol acetate and determination of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in cancer cachexia. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 9:325 (abs)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Beck S, Tisdale M (1990) Effect of megestrol acetate on weight loss induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha and a cachexia-inducing tumor (MAC16) in NMRI mice. Br J Cancer 62:420–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lapp CA, Thomas ME, Lewis JB (1995) Modulation by progesterone of interleukin-6 production by gingival fibroblasts. J Periodontol 66:279–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mantovani G, Macciò A, Lai P et al (1998) Cytokine involvement in cancer anorexia/cachexia: role of megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on cytokine downregulation and improvement of clinical symptoms. Crit Rev Oncog 9:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mantovani G, Macciò A, Lai P et al (1998) Cytokine activity in cancer-related anorexia/cachexia: role of megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Semin Oncol 25(Suppl 6):45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mantovani G, Macciò A, Esu S et al (1997) Medroxyprogesterone acetate reduces the in vitro production of cytokines and serotonin involved in anorexia/cachexia and emesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 33:602–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mantovani G (1997) Serum levels of cytokines and weightloss/anorexia in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 5:422–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yeh SS, Wu SS, Levine DM et al (2000) Quality of life and stimulation of weight gain after treatment with megestrol acetate: correlation between cytokine levels and nutritional status, appetite, and in geriatric patients. J Nutr Health Aging 4:246–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jatoi A, Yamashita J, Sloan JA et al (2002) Does megestrol acetate down-regulate interleukin-6 in patients with cancer-associated anorexia and weight loss? A North Central Cancer Treatment Group investigation. Support Care Cancer 10:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McCarthy HD, Crowder RE, Dryden S, Williams G (1994) Megestrol acetate stimulates food and water intake in the rat: effects on regional hypothalamic neuropeptide Y concentrations. Eur J Pharmacol 265:99–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Costa AM, Spence KT, Plata-Salaman CR, FfrenchMullen JM (1995) Residual Ca2+ channel current modulation by megestrol acetate via a G-protein alpha s-subunit in rat hypothalamic neurones. J Physiol 487:291–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Meacham LR, Mazewski C, Krawiecki N (2003) Mechanism of transient adrenal insufficiency with megestrol acetate treatment of cachexia in children with cancer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25:414–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McKone EF, Tonelli MR, Aitken ML (2002) Adrenal insufficiency and testicular failure secondary to megestrol acetate therapy in a patient with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol 34:381–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pimentel G, Santos E, Arastu M, Cowan JA (1996) Hyperglycemia in an AIDS patient taking megestrol. Hosp Pract (Off Ed) 31:27–28Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hervas R, Cepeda C, Pulido F (2004) Cushing syndrome secondary to megestrol acetate in a patient with AIDS. Med Clin (Barc) 122:638–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kropsky B, Shi Y, Cherniack EP (2003) Incidence of deep-venous thrombosis in nursing home residents using megestrol acetate. J Am Med Dir Assoc 4:255–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Thomas DR (2004) Incidence of venous thromboembolism in megestrol acetate users. J Am Med Dir Assoc 5:65–66; author reply 66–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bennett RG (2003) Megestrol complications. Chest 123:309–310; author reply 310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Naing KK, Dewar JA, Leese GP ( 1999) Megestrol acetate therapy and secondary adrenal suppression. Cancer 86:1044–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mann M, Koller E, Murgo A et al ( 1997) Glucocorticoidlike activity of megestrol. A summary of Food and Drug Administration experience and a review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 157:1651–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gonzalez Del Valle L, Herrero Ambrosio A, Martinez Hernandez P et al (1996) Hyperglycemia induced by megestrol acetate in a patient with AIDS. Ann Pharmacother 30:1113–1114Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Loprinzi CL, Fonseca R, Jensen MD ( 1996) Megestrol acetate-induced adrenal suppression. J Clin Oncol 14:689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gorter RW (1999) Cancer cachexia and cannabinoids. Forsch Komplementarmed 6(Suppl 3):21–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gorter R (1998) Cannabis and cannabidiol: interview with Robert Gorter, MD. Interview by Fred Gardner. AIDS Treat News 305:4–6Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J et al (1997) Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 12:913–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL et al (2002) Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. J Clin Oncol 20:567–573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Beal JE, Olson R, Laubenstein L et al (1995) Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. J Pain Symptom Manage 10:89–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ et al (1993) Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection. Ann Pharmacother 27:827–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Batterham MJ, Garsia R (2001) A comparison of megestrol acetate, nandrolone decanoate and dietary counselling for HIV associated weight loss. Int J Androl 24:232–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lyden E, Cvetkovska E, Westin T et al (1995) Effects of nandrolone propionate on experimental tumor growth and cancer cachexia. Metabolism 44:445–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gruzdev BM, Ivannikov EV, Gorbacheva ES (1999) Anabolic therapy in patients with HIV infections. Ter Arkh 71:35–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gold J, High HA, Li Y et al (1996) Safety and efficacy of nandrolone decanoate for treatment of wasting in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 10:745–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Johansen KL, Mulligan K, Schambelan M (1999) Anabolic effect of nandrolone decanoate in patients receiving dialysis. JAMA 281:1275–1281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Strawford A, Barbieri T, Neese R et al (1999) Effects of nandrolone decanoate therapy in borderline hypogonadal men with HIV-associated weight loss. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 20:137–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Berger JR, Pall L, Hall CD et al (1996) Oxandrolone in AIDS-wastingmyopathy. AIDS 10:1657–1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bonkovsky HL, Fiellin DA, Smith GS et al (1991) A randomized, controlled trial of treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with parenteral nutrition and oxandrolone. I. Short-terms effect on liver function. Am J Gastroenterol 86:1200–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Demling RH, Orgill DP (2000) The anticatabolic and wound healing effects of the testosterone analog oxandrolone after severe burn injury. J Crit Care 15:12–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Romeyn M, Gunn N 3rd (2000) Resistance exercise and oxandrolone for men with HIV-related weight loss. JAMA 284:176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Yeh SS, DeGuzman B, Kramer T (2002) Reversal of COPD-associated weight loss using the anabolic agent oxandrolone. Chest 122:421–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Krasner DL, Belcher AE (2000) Oxandrolone restores appetite. An increase in weight helps heal wounds. Am J Nurs 100:53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Demling R, De Santi L (1998) Closure of the ‘nonhealing wound’ corresponds with correction of weight loss using the anabolic agent oxandrolone. Ostomy Wound Manage 44:58–62, 64, 66 passimPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Langer CJ, Hoffman JP, Ottery FD (2001) Clinical significance of weight loss in cancer patients: rationale for the use of anabolic agents in the treatment of cancer-related cachexia. Nutrition 17(1 Suppl):S1–S20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mwamburi DM, Gerrior J, Wilson IB et al (2004) Comparing megestrol acetate therapy with oxandrolone therapy for HIV-related weight loss: similar results in 2 months. Clin Infect Dis 38:895–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Earthman CP, Reid PM, Harper IT et al (2002) Body cell mass repletion and improved quality of life in HIV-infected individuals receiving oxandrolone. JPEN J Parenter Enterai Nutr 26:357–365Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Grinspoon S, Corcoran C, Parlman K et al (2000) Effects of testosterone and progressive resistance training in eugonadal men with AIDS wasting. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 133:348–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bhasin S, Storer TW, Javanbakht M et al (2000) Testosterone replacement and resistance exercise in HIV-infected men with weight loss and low testosterone levels. JAMA 283:763–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bhasin S, Storer TW, Asbel-Sethi N et al (1998) Effects of testosterone replacement with a nongenital, transdermal system, Androderm, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with low testosterone levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:3155–3162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Coodley GO, Coodley MK (1997) A trial of testosterone therapy for HIV-associated weight loss. AIDS 11:1347–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bennell KL, Brukner PD, Malcolm SA (1996) Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes. Br J Sports Med 30:205–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Morley JE, Perry HM 3rd, Kaiser FE et al (1993) Effects of testosterone replacement therapy in old hypogonadal males: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc 41:149–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dolan S, Wilkie S, Aliabadi N et al (2004) Effects of testosterone administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with low weight: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Arch Intern Med 164:897–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schurgin S, Dolan S, Perlstein A et al (2004) Effects of testosterone administration on growth hormone pulse dynamics in human immunodeficiency virusinfected women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3290–3297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Svanberg E, Ohlsson C, Kimball SR, Lundholm K (2000) rhIGF-l/IGFBP-3 complex, but not free rhIGF-1, supports muscle protein biosynthesis in rats during semistarvation. Eur J Clin Invest 30:438–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wang W, Iresjo BM, Karlsson L, Svanberg E (2000) Provision of rhIGF-l/IGFBP-3 complex attenuated development of cancer cachexia in an experimental tumor model. Clin Nutr 19:127–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tai VW, Schambelan M, Algren H et al (2002) Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on fat distribution in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting. Clin Infect Dis 35:1258–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lo JC, Mulligan K, Noor MA et al (2001) The effects of recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3480–3487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mulligan K, Tai VW, Schambelan M (1999) Use of growth hormone and other anabolic agents in AIDS wasting. JPEN J Parenter Enterai Nutr 23:S202–S209Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mulligan K, Tai VW, Schambelan M (1998) Effects of chronic growth hormone treatment on energy intake and resting energy metabolism in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting—a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:1542–1547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schambelan M, Mulligan K, Grunfeld C et al (1996) Recombinant human growth hormone in patients with HIV-associated wasting. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Serostim Study Group. Ann Intern Med 125:873–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cominelli S, Raguso CA, Karsegard L et al (2002) Weight-losing HIV-infected patients on recombinant human growth hormone for 12 wk: a national study. Nutrition 18:583–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Crown AL, Cottle K, Lightman SL et al (2002) What is the role of the insulin-like growth factor system in the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia, and how is it regulated? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 56:723–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Roubenoff R (2000) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting, functional performance, and quality of life. Am J Manag Care 6:1003–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Biolo G, Iscra F, Bosutti A et al (2000) Growth hormone decreases muscle glutamine production and stimulates protein synthesis in hypercatabolic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E323–E332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mynarcik DC, Frost RA, Lang CH et al (1999) Insulin-like growth factor system in patients with HIV infection: effect of exogenous growth hormone administration. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 22:49–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Windisch PA, Papatheofanis FJ, Matuszewski KA (1998) Recombinant human growth hormone for AIDS-associated wasting. Ann Pharmacother 32:437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ellis KJ, Lee PD, Pivarnik JM et al (1996) Changes in body composition of human immunodeficiency virus-infected males receiving insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:3033–3038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Von Roenn JH, Knopf K (1996) Anorexia/cachexia in patients with HIV: lessons for the oncologist. Oncology (Huntingt) 10:1049–1056; discussion 1062–1064, 1067–1068Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Papadakis MA, Grady D, Black D et al (1996) Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability. Ann Intern Med 124:708–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kaiser FE, Silver AJ, Morley JE (1991) The effect of recombinant human growth hormone on malnourished older individuals. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Waters D, Danska J, Hardy K et al (1996) Recombinant human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, and combination therapy in AIDSassociated wasting. Ann Intern Med 125:865–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Brocker P, Vellas B, Albarede JL, Poynard T(1994) A two-centre, randomized, double-blind trial of ornithine oxoglutarate in 194 elderly, ambulatory, convalescent subjects. Age Ageing 23:303–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Boelens PG, Fonk JC, Houdijk AP et al (2004) Primary immune response to keyhole limpet haemocyanin following trauma in relation to low plasma glutamine. Clin Exp Immunol 136:356–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sahni M, Guenther HL, Fleisch H et al (1993) Bisphosphonates act on rat bone resorption through the mediation of osteoblasts. J Clin Invest 91:2004–2011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lai YN, Yeh SL, Lin MT et al (2004) Glutamine supplementation enhances mucosal immunity in rats with Gut-Derived sepsis. Nutrition 20:286–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Akisu M, Baka M, Huseyinov A, Kultursay N (2003) The role of dietary supplementation with L-glutamine in inflammatory mediator release and intestinal injury in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Ann Nutr Metab 47:262–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rathmacher JA, Nissen S, Panton L et al (2004) Supplementation with a combination of betahydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters. JPEN J Parenter Enterai Nutr 28:65–75Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    May PE, Barber A, D’Olimpio JT et al (2002) Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxybeta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am J Surg 183:471–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M et al (2000) Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virusassociated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enterai Nutr 24:133–139Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    von Meyenfeldt MF (1999) Nutritional support during treatment of biliopancreatic malignancy. Ann Oncol 10(Suppl 4):273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Vazquez P, Gomez de Segura IA, Cos A et al (1996) Response of the intestinal mucosa to different enterai diets in situations of surgical stress and malnutrition. Nutr Hosp 11:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kinscherf R, Hack V, Fischbach T et al (1996) Low plasma glutamine in combination with high glutamate levels indicate risk for loss of body cell mass in healthy individuals: the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine. J Mol Med 74:393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Austgen TR, Chen MK, Dudrick PS et al (1992) Cytokine regulation of intestinal glutamine utilization. Am J Surg 163:174–179, discussion 179–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Smith QR (1991) The blood-brain barrier and the regulation of amino acid uptake and availability to brain. Adv Exp Med Biol 291:55–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tayek JA, Bistrian BR, Hehir DJ et al (1986) Improved protein kinetics and albumin synthesis by branched chain amino acid-enriched total parenteral nutrition in cancer cachexia. A prospective randomized crossover trial. Cancer 58:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Grunfeld C, Feingold KR (1991) The metabolic effects of tumor necrosis factor and other cytokines. Biotherapy 3:143–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Grunfeld C, Kotler DP (1992) Wasting in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Semin Liver Dis 12:175–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Doherty GM, Jensen JC, Alexander HR et al (1991) Pentoxifylline suppression of tumor necrosis factor gene transcription. Surgery 110:192–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Landman D, Sarai A, Sathe SS (1994) Use of pentoxifylline therapy for patients with AIDS-related wasting: pilot study. Clin Infect Dis 18:97–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Goldberg RM, Loprinzi CL, Mailliard JA et al (1995) Pentoxifylline for treatment of cancer anorexia and cachexia? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 13:2856–2859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Kruse A, Rieneck K, Kappel M et al (1995) Pentoxifylline therapy in HIV seropositive subjects with elevated TNF. Immunopharmacology 31:85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sathe SS, Tsigler D, Sarai A, umar P (1995) Pentoxifylline impairs macrophage defense against Mycobacterium avium complex. J Infect Dis 172:863–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sathe SS, Sarai A, Tsigler D, Nedunchezian D (1994) Pentoxifylline aggravates impairment in tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion and increases mycobacterial load in macrophages from AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infection. J Infect Dis 170:484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Greig NH, Giordano T, Zhu X et al (2004) Thalidomide-based TNF-alpha inhibitors for neurodegenerative diseases. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 64:1–9Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kedar I, Mermershtain W, Ivgi H (2004) Thalidomide reduces serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 and induces response to IL-2 in a fraction of metastatic renal cell cancer patients who failed IL-2-based therapy. Int J Cancer 110:260–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Reyes-Teran G, Sierra-Madero JG, Martinez del Cerro V et al (1996) Effects of thalidomide on HIVassociated wasting syndrome: a randomized, double, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. AIDS 10:1501–1507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Zhou S, Kestell P, Tingle MD, Paxton JW (2002) Thalidomide in cancer treatment: a potential role in the elderly? Drugs Aging 19:85–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Khan ZH, Simpson EJ, Cole AT et al (2003) Oesophageal cancer and cachexia: the effect of short-term treatment with thalidomide on weight loss and lean body mass. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 17:677–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sauer LA, Dauchy RT, Blask DE (2000) Mechanism for the antitumor and anticachectic effects of n-3 fatty acids. Cancer Res 60:5289–5295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Meydani SN, Endres S, Woods MM et al (1991) Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: comparison between young and older women. J Nutr 121:547–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Dinarello CA, Endres S, Meydani SN et al (1990) Interleukin-1, anorexia, and dietary fatty acids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 587:332–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Endres S, Ghorbani R, Kelley VE et al (1989) The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N Engl J Med 320:265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tisdale MJ, Dhesi JK (1990) Inhibition of weight loss by omega-3 fatty acids in an experimental cachexia model. Cancer Res 50:5022–5026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Costelli P, Llovera M, Lopez-Soriano J et al (1995) Lack of effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in preventing cancer cachexia and inhibiting tumor growth. Cancer Lett 97:25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fearon KC, Von Meyenfeldt MF, Moses AG et al (2003) Effect of a protein and energy dense N-3 fatty acid enriched oral supplement on loss of weight and lean tissue in cancer cachexia: a randomised double blind trial. Gut 52:1479–1486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Jatoi A, Rowland K, Loprinzi CL et al (2004) An eicosapentaenoic acid supplement versus megestrol acetate versus both for patients with cancer-associated wasting: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group and National Cancer Institute of Canada collaborative effort. J Clin Oncol 22:2469–2476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Roederer M, Staal FJ, Raju PA et al (1990) Cytokinestimulated human immunodeficiency virus replication is inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Proc_Natl Acad Sci USA 87:4884–4888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kardinal CG, Loprinzi CL, Schaid DJ et al (1990) A controlled trial of cyproheptadine in cancer patients with anorexia and/or cachexia. Cancer 65:2657–2662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Loprinzi CL, Kuross SA, O’Fallon JR et al (1994) Randomized placebo-controlled evaluation of hydrazine sulfate in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 12:1121–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Loprinzi CL, Goldberg RM, Su JQ et al (1994) Placebo-controlled trial of hydrazine sulfate in patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 12:1126–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Lissoni P, Paolorossi F, Tancini G et al (1996) Is there a role for melatonin in the treatment of neoplastic cachexia? Eur J Cancer 32A:1340–1343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Maughan R (1995) Creatine supplementation and exercise performance. International journal of sport nutrition 5:94–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Engelhardt M, Neumann G, Berbalk A, Reuter I (1998) Creatine supplementation in endurance sports. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:1123–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Greenhaff PL, Casey A, Short AH et al (1993) Influence of oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin Sci (Lond) 84:565–571Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaff PL (1994) The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 69:268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Greenhaff PL (1995) Creatine and its application as an ergogenic aid. Int J Sport Nutr 5:S100–S110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER et al (2000) American College of Sports Medicine roundtable. The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:706–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Williams MH, Branch JD (1998) Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 17:216–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Redondo DR, Dowling EA, Graham BL et al (1996) The effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on running velocity. Int J Sport Nutr 6:213–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hyltander A, Daneryd P, Sandstrom R et al (2000) Beta-adrenoceptor activity and resting energy metabolism in weight losing cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 36:330–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Roe S, Cooper AL, Morris ID, Rothwell NJ (1996) Mechanisms of cachexia induced by T-cell leukemia in the rat. Metabolism 45:645–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Szabo K (1979) Clinical experiences with beta adrenergic blocking therapy on burned patients. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg 13:211–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Lamont LS, Brown T, Riebe D, Caldwell M (2000) The major components of human energy balance during chronic beta-adrenergic blockade. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 20:247–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Reichel K, Rehfeldt C, Weikard R et al (1993) Effect of a beta-agonist and a beta-agonist/beta-antagonist combination on muscle growth, body composition and protein metabolism in rats. Arch Tierernahr 45:211–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Arbabi S, Ahrns KS, Wahl WL et al (2004) Beta-blocker use is associated with improved outcomes in adult burn patients. J Trauma 56:265–269; discussion 269–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kawakami M, He J, Sakamoto T, Okada Y (2001) Catecholamines play a role in the production of interleukin-6 and interleukin-lalpha in unburned skin after burn injury in mice. Crit Care Med 29:796–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Hryniewicz K, Androne AS, Hudaihed A, Katz SD (2003) Partial reversal of cachexia by beta-adrenergic receptor blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure. J Card Fail 9:464–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Gambardella A, Tortoriello R, Pesce L et al (1999) Intralipid infusion combined with propranolol administration has favorable metabolic effects in elderly malnourished cancer patients. Metabolism 48:291–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hussey HJ, Tisdale MJ (2000) Effect of the specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor meloxicam on tumour growth and cachexia in a murine model. Int J Cancer 87:95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cahlin C, Gelin J, Delbro D et al (2000) Effect of cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on tumor growth in mouse tumor models with and without cancer cachexia related to prostanoids. Cancer Res 60:1742–1743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gelin J, Moldawer LL, Lonnroth C et al (1991) Role of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 for experimental tumor growth and the development of cancer cachexia. Cancer Res 51:415–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Gelin J, Andersson C, Lundholm K (1991) Effects of indomethacin, cytokines, and cyclosporin A on tumor growth and the subsequent development of cancer cachexia. Cancer Res 51:880–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wang W, Lonnroth C, Svanberg E, Lundholm K (2001) Cytokine and cyclooxygenase-2 protein in brain areas of tumor-bearing mice with prostanoidrelated anorexia. Cancer Res 61:4707–4715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Cahlin C, Korner A, Axelsson H et al (2000) Experimental cancer cachexia: the role of host-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferongamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha evaluated in gene knockout, tumor-bearing mice on C57 Bl background and eicosanoid-dependent cachexia. Cancer Res 60:5488–5493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Lundholm K, Gelin J, Hyltander A et al (1994) Antiinflammatory treatment may prolong survival in undernourished patients with metastatic solid tumors. Cancer Res 54:5602–5606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Adigun AQ, Ajayi AA (2001) The effects of enalapril-digoxin-diuretic combination therapy on nutritional and anthropometric indices in chronic congestive heart failure: preliminary findings in cardiac cachexia. Eur J Heart Fail 3:359–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Anker SD, Negassa A, Coats AJ et al (2003) Prognostic importance of weight loss in chronic heart failure and the effect of treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: an observational study. Lancet 361:1077–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T et al (2001) Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin. Gastroenterology 120:337–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Hao S, Avraham Y, Mechoulam R, Berry EM (2000) Low dose anandamide affects food intake, cognitive function, neurotransmitter and corticosterone levels in diet-restricted mice. Eur J Pharmacol 392:147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Kawamura I, Yamamoto N, Sakai F et al (1999) Activation of lipoprotein lipase and inhibition of B16 melanoma-induced cachexia in mice by ponalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor. Anticancer Res 19:341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kawamura I, Lacey E, Yamamoto N et al (1999) Ponalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, inhibits cachexia syndrome induced by colon26 adenocarcinomain mice. Anticancer Res 19:4105–4111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kawamura I, Yamamoto N, Sakai F et al (1999) Effect of lipoprotein lipase activators bezafibrate and NO1886, on B16 melanoma-induced cachexia in mice. Anticancer Res 19:4099–4103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kawamura I, Lacey E, Inami M et al (1999) Ponalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, inhibits cachexia syndrome in nude mice bearing human melanomas G361 and SEKI. Anticancer Res 19:4091–4097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Agteresch HJ, Dagnelie PC, van der Gaast A et al (2000) Randomized clinical trial of adenosine 5’-triphosphate in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Agteresch HJ, Burgers SA, van der Gaast A et al (2003) Randomized clinical trial of adenosine 5’-triphosphate on tumor growth and survival in advanced lung cancer patients. Anticancer Drugs 14:639–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ishiko O, Yasui T, Hirai K et al (1999) Lipolytic activity of anemia-inducing substance from tumor-bearing rabbits. Nutr Cancer 33:201–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ishiko O, Hirai K, Nishimura S et al (1999) Elimination of anemia-inducing substance by cyclic plasma perfusion of tumor-bearing rabbits. Clin Cancer Res 5:2660–2665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ishiko O, Sumi T, Yoshida H et al (2001) Angiogenesis in the adipose tissue of tumor-bearing rabbits treated by cyclic plasma perfusion. Int J Oncol 19:785–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Ishiko O, Yoshida H, Sumi T et al (2001) Expression of skeletal muscle cells apoptosis regulatory proteins in plasma-perfused VX2 carcinoma-bearing rabbits. Anticancer Res 21:2363–2368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Josephs MD, Solorzano CC, Taylor M et al (2000) Modulation of the acute phase response by altered expression of the IL-1 type 1 receptor or IL-Ira. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 278:R824–R830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Carbo N, Lopez-Soriano J, Costelli P et al (2000) Interleukin-15 antagonizes muscle protein waste in tumour-bearing rats. Br J Cancer 83:526–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Figueras M, Busquets S, Carbo N et al (2004) Interleukin-15 is able to suppress the increased DNA fragmentation associated with muscle wasting in tumour-bearing rats. FEBS Lett 569:201–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Schwartz SA, Hernandez A, Mark Evers B (1999) The role of NF-kappaB/IkappaB proteins in cancer: implications for novel treatment strategies. Surg Oncol 8:143–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kawamura I, Morishita R, Tsujimoto S et al (2001) Intravenous injection of oligodeoxynucleotides to the NF-kappaB binding site inhibits hepatic metastasis of M5076 reticulosarcoma in mice. Gene Ther 8:905–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Kawamura I, Morishita R, Tomita N et al (1999) Intratumoral injection of oligonucleotides to the NF kappa B binding site inhibits cachexia in a mouse tumor model. Gene Ther 6:91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shing-Shing Yeh
    • 1
  • Michael W. Schuster
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine - GeriatricsUniversity of New York at Stony Brook VAMCNorthportUSA
  2. 2.Bone Marrow and Blood Stem Cell Transplantation ProgramCenter for Lymphoma and Myeloma, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations