Cachexia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Malnutrition-Inflammation Complex and Reverse Epidemiology

  • Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
  • Joel D. Kopple


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible and progressive disease state leading to renal dysfunction and related morbidity [1]. According to the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines, CKD is defined as a chronic disease state in that irreversible, structural, or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), are present for at least three consecutive months [1]. The degree of renal insufficiency, based on the magnitude of the estimated GFR for 1.73 m2 body surface, is used to classify the CKD into five stages: (1) GFR > 90 ml/min, (2) GFR 60-89 ml/min, (3) GFR 30-59 ml/min, (4) GFR 15-29 ml/min, and (5) GFR < 15 ml/min [1]. If they survive long enough, CKD patients eventually reach stage 5 CKD, also known as end-stage renal disease (ESRD), in which life prolongation is exclusively dependent upon renal replacement therapy, i.e. maintenance haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis treatment and/or kidney transplantation.


Chronic Kidney Disease Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Patient Hemodialysis Patient Chronic Kidney Disease Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
    • 1
  • Joel D. Kopple
    • 2
  1. 1.Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, and David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of California Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Division of Public HealthNutrition and Epidemiology, University of California Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley and UCLA School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA

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