Pathological findings in rheumatic diseases

  • Fabio Martino
  • Enzo Silvestri
  • Walter Grassi
  • Giacomo Garlaschi
  • Emilio Filippucci
  • Carlo Martinoli


The ability of US to make an accurate evaluation of soft tissue involvement in a wide range of diseases of the locomotor system has led to its increasing widespread use in the field of rheumatology [1]–[10]. Significant technological progress has been made over the last few years, generating ever more sophisticated and reliable ultrasound machinery. The high resolution is now such that real in vivo histological examination is now possible.The main reason for the relative lack of wide diffusion of its use amongst rheumatologists is that a long training period is necessary in order to acquire full operator independence


Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal Tunnel Septic Arthritis Flexor Tendon Tendon Sheath 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Grassi W, Salaffi F, Filippucci E (2005) Ultrasound in rheumatology. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 19:467–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grassi W, Filippucci E, Busilacchi P (2004) Musculoskeletal ultrasound. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 18:813–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kane D, Balint PV, Sturrock R, Grassi W (2004) Musculoskeletal ultrasound-a state of the art review in rheumatology. Part 1: Current controversies and issues in the development of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Rheumatology 43:823–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kane D, Grassi W, Sturrock R, Balint PV (2004) Musculoskeletal ultrasound-a state of the art review in rheumatology. Part 2: Clinical indications for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Rheumatology 43:829–838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wakefield RJ, Brown A, O’Connor P et al (2003) Rheumatological ultrasound. Rheumatology 42:1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karim Z, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG et al (2001) The impact of ultrasonography on diagnosis and management of patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Arthritis Rheum 44:2932–2933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Backhaus M, Burmester GR, Gerber T et al (2001) Guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology. Ann Rheum Dis 60:641–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grassi W, Cervini C (1998) Ultrasonography in rheumatology: an evolving technique. Ann Rheum Dis 57:268–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Balint P, Sturrock RD (1997) Musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging: a new diagnostic tool for the rheumatologist? Br J Rheumatol 36:1141–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manger B, Kalden JR (1995) Joint and connective tissue ultrasonography — A rheumatologic bedside procedure? A German experience.Arthritis Rheum 38:736–742Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McDonald DG, Leopold GR (1972) Ultrasound B scanning in the differentiation of Baker’s cyst and thrombophlebitis. Br J Radiol 45:729–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grassi W, Filippucci E, Farina A (2005) Ultrasonography in osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 34:19–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grassi W, Lamanna G, Farina A, Cervini C (1999) Sonographic imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. Semin Arthritis Rheum 28:398–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Naredo E, Cabero F, Palop MJ et al (2005) Ultrasonographic findings in knee osteoarthritis: a comparative study with clinical and radiographic assessment. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 13:568–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCune WJ, Dedrick DK, Aisen AM, MacGuire A (1990) Sonographic evaluation of osteoarthritic femoral condylar cartilage. Correlation with operative findings. Clin Orthop 254:230–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martino F, Monetti G (1993) Semeiotica ecografica delle malattie reumatiche. Piccin ed., PadovaGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aisen AM, McCune WJ, MacGuire A et al (1984) Sonographic evaluation of the cartilage of the knee. Radiology 153:781–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martino F, Ettorre GC, Patella V et al (1993) Articular cartilage echography as a criterion of the evolution of osteoarthritis of the knee. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 13:35–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grassi W, Filippucci E, Farina A, Cervini C (2000) Sonographic imaging of the distal phalanx. Semin Arthritis Rheum 29:379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iagnocco A, Filippucci E, Ossandon A et al (2005) High resolution ultrasonography in detection of bone erosions in patients with hand osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 32:2381–2383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grassi W, Tittarelli E, Pirani O et al (1993) Ultrasound examination of metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 22:243–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grassi W, Tittarelli E, Blasetti P et al (1995) Finger tendon involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation with high frequency sonography. Arthritis Rheum 38:786–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lund PJ, Heikal A, Maricic MJ et al (1995) Ultrasonographic imaging of the hand and wrist in rheumatoid arthritis. Skeletal Radiol 24:591–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Backhaus M, Kamradt T, Sandrock D et al (1999) Arthritis of the finger joints: a comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonanace imaging. Arthritis Rheum 42:1232–1245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grassi W, Filippucci E, Farina A et al (2001) Ultrasonography in the evaluation of bone erosions. Ann Rheum Dis 60:98–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wakefield RJ, Gibbon WW, Conaghan PG et al (2000) The value of sonography in the detection of bone erosions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with conventional radiography. Arthritis Rheum 43:2762–2770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmidt WA (2001) Value of sonography in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 357:1056–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Szkudlarek M, Court-Payen M, Jacobsen S et al (2003) Interobserver agreement in ultrasonography of the finger and toe joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 48:955–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szkudlarek M, Court-Payen M, Strandberg C et al (2001) power Doppler ultrasonography for assessment of synovitis in the metacarpophalangeal joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Arthritis Rheum 44:2018–2023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Naredo E, Gamero F, Bonilla G et al (2005) Ultrasonographic assessment of inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison of extended versus reduced joint evaluation. Clin Exp Rheumatol 23:881–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weidekamm C, Koller M, Weber M, Kainberger F (2003) Diagnostic value of high-resolution B-mode and doppler sonography for imaging of hand and finger joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 48:325–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stone M, Bergin D, Whelan B et al (2001) Power Doppler ultrasound assessment of rheumatoid hand synovitis. J Rheumatol 28:1979–1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hau M, Kneitz C, Tony HP et al (2002) High resolution ultrasound detects a decrease in pannus vascularisation of small finger joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment with soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha receptor (etanercept). Ann Rheum Dis 61:55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grassi W, Filippucci E (2003) Is power Doppler sonography the new frontier in therapy monitoring? Clin Exp Rheumatol 21:424–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wakefield RJ, Brown AK, O’Connor PJ, Emery P (2003) Power Doppler sonography: improving disease activity assessment in inflammatory musculoskeletal disease. Arthritis Rheum 48:285–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grassi W, Filippucci E, Farina A, Cervini C (2000) Sonographic imaging of tendons. Arthritis Rheum 43:969–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kane D, Greaney T, Bresnihan B et al (1999) Ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of psoriatic dactylitis. J Rheumatol 26:1746–1751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Olivieri I, Barozzi L, Favaro L et al (1996) Dactylitis in patients with seronegative spondylarthropathy.Assessment by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Arthritis Rheum 39:1524–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Balint PV, Sturrock RD (2000) Inflamed retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendonitis in psoriatic arthritis demonstrated by ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis 59:931–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Balint PV, Kane D, Wilson H et al (2002) Ultrasonography of entheseal insertions in the lower limb in spondyloarthropathy. Ann Rheum Dis 61:905–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Falsetti P, Frediani B, Fioravanti A et al (2003) Sonographic study of calcaneal entheses in erosive osteoarthritis, nodal osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 32:229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Galluzzo E, Lischi DM, Taglione E et al (2000) Sonographic analysis of the ankle in patients with psoriatic arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 29:52–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    D’Agostino MA, Said-Nahal R, Hacquard-Bouder C et al (2003) Assessment of peripheral enthesitis in the spondylarthropathies by ultrasonography combined with power Doppler: a cross-sectional study. Arthritis Rheum 48:523–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Frediani B, Falsetti P, Storri L et al (2002) Ultrasound and clinical evaluation of quadricipital tendon enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 21:294–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Falsetti P, Frediani B, Filippou G et al (2002) Enthesitis of proximal insertion of the deltoid in the course of seronegative spondyloarthritis. An atypical enthesitis that can mime impingement syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol 31:158–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Filippucci E, Ciapetti A, Grassi W (2003) Sonographic monitoring of gout. Reumatismo 55:184–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gerster JC, Landry M, Dufresne L, Meuwly JY (2002) Imaging of tophaceous gout: computed tomography provides specific images compared with magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography. Ann Rheum Dis 61:52–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Frediani B, Filippou G, Falsetti P et al (2005) Diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease: ultrasonographic criteria proposed. Ann Rheum Dis 64:638–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coari G, Iagnocco A, Zoppini A (1995) Chondrocalcinosis: sonographic study of the knee. Clin Rheumatol 14:511–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sofka CM, Adler RS, Cordasco FA (2002) Ultrasound diagnosis of chondrocalcinosis in the knee. Skeletal Radiol 31:43–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Foldes K (2002) Knee chondrocalcinosis: an ultrasonographic study of the hyalin cartilage. Clin Imaging 26:194–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Alasaarela E, Leppilahti J, Hakala M (1998) Ultrasound and operative evaluation of arthritic shoulder joints. Ann Rheum Dis 57:357–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Naredo E, Aguado P, De Miguel E et al (2002) Painful shoulder: comparison of physical examination and ultrasonographic findings. Ann Rheum Dis 61:132–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Strunk J, Lange U, Kurten B et al (2003) Doppler sonographic findings in the long bicipital tendon sheath in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as compared with patients with degenerative diseases of the shoulder. Arthritis Rheum 48:1828–1832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    vanHolsbeeck MT, Kolowich PA, Eyler WR et al (1995) US depiction of partial-thickness tear of the rotator cuff. Radiology 197:443–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Teefey SA, Middleton WD, Payne WT, Yamaguchi K (2005) Detection and measurement of rotator cuff tears with sonography: analysis of diagnostic errors. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184:1768–1773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bude RO, Nesbitt SD, Adler RS, Rubenfire M (1998) Sonographic detection of xanthomas in normal-sized Achilles’ tendons of individuals with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. AJR Am J Roentgenol 170:621–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Iagnocco A, Ossandon A, Coari G et al (2004) Wrist joint involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.An ultrasonographic study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 22:621–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ihn H, Shimozuma M, Fujmoto M et al (1995) Ultrasound measurement of skin thickness in systemic sclerosis. Br J Rheumatol 34:535–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bravo SM, Winalski CS, Weissman BN (1996) Pigmented villonodular synovitis. Radiol Clin North Am 34:311–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yang PY, Wang CL, Wu CT et al (1998) Sonography of pigmented villonodular synovitis in the ankle joint. J Clin Ultrasound 26:166–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Strouse PJ, DiPietro MA, Adler RS (1998) Pediatric hip effusions: evaluation with power Doppler sonography. Radiology 206:731–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marchal GJ, VanHolsbeeck MT, Raes M et al (1987) Transient synovitis of the hip in children: role of US. Radiology 162:825–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gordon JE, Huang M, Dobbs M et al (2002) Causes of false-negative ultrasound scans in the diagnosis of septic arthritis of the hip in children. J Pediatr Orthop 22:312–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bagnolesi P, Campassi C, Cilotti A et al (1993) Artropatia emofilica: ecografia e radiologia. La radiologia medica 85:28–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Klukowska A, Czyrny Z, Laguna P et al (2001) Correlation between clinical, radiological and ultrasonographical image of knee joints in children with hemophilia. Haemophilia 7:286–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lanzillo B, Pappone N, Crisci C et al (1998) Subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 41:1196–1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rosenbaum R (2001) Neuromuscular complications of connective tissue diseases. Muscle Nerve 24:154–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Said G, Lacroix C (2005) Primary and secondary vasculitis neuropathy. J Neurol 252:633–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nadkar MY, Agarwal R, Samant RS et al (2001) Neuropathy in rheumatoid arthritis. J Assoc Physicians India 49:217–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sivri A, Guler-Uysal F (1998) The electroneurophysiological evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clin Rheumatol 17:416–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Buchberger W, Judmaier W, Birbamer G et al (1992) Carpal tunnel syndrome: diagnosis with high-resolution sonography. AJR 159:793–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chen P, Maklad N, Redwine M et al (1997) Dynamic high-resolution sonography of the carpal tunnel. AJR 168:533–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Duncan I, Sullivan P, Lomas F (1999) Sonography in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. AJR 173:681–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Altinok T, Baysal O, Karakas HM et al (2004) Ultrasonographic assessment of mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Clin Radiology 59:916–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    El-Karabaty H, Hetzel A, Galla TJ et al (2005) The effect of carpal tunnel release on median nerve flattening and nerve conduction. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 45:223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Martinoli C, Bianchi S, Gandolfo N et al (2000) US of nerve entrapments in osteofibrous tunnels of the upper and lower limbs. Radiographics 20:199–217Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Grassi W, Farina A, Filippucci E et al (2002) Intralesional therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome: a sonographicguided approach. Clin Exp Rheumatol 20:73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chiou HJ, Chou YH, Cheng SP et al (1998) Cubital tunnel syndrome: diagnosis by high-resolution ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 17:643–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jacob D, Creteur V, Courthaliac C et al (2004) Sonoanatomy of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel: a multicentre study by the GEL. Eur Radiol 14:1770–1773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Spinner RJ, Morgenlander JC, Nunley JA (2000) Ulnar nerve function following total elbow arthroplasty: a prospective study comparing preoperative and postoperative clinical and electrophysiological evaluation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Hand Surg 25:360–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pellman E, Kumari S, Greenwald R (1986) Rheumatoid iliopsoas bursitis presenting as unilateral leg edema. J Rheumatol 13:197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Keller A et al (2002) Giant iliopsoas bursitis: ultrasound findings with MRI correlations. J Clin Ultrasound 30: 437–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yoon TR, Song EK, Chung JY et al (2000) Femoral neuropathy caused by enlarged iliopsoas bursa associated with osteonecrosis of femoral head: a case report. Acta Orthop Scand 71:322–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mahlfeld K, Kayser R, Franke J (2004) Ultrasonographic visualization of a Baker-cyst as cause of a peroneal nerve palsy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Unfallchirurg 107:429–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lee D, Dauphinée DM (2005) Morphological and functional changes in the diabetic peripheral nerve using diagnostic ultrasound and neurosensory testing to select candidates for nerve decompression J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 95:433–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lane NE, Michel B, Bjorkengren A et al (1993) The risk of osteoarthritis with running and aging: a 5-year longitudinal study. J Rheumatol 20:461–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Koulouris G, Connell D (2005) Hamstring muscle complex: an imaging review. Radiographics 25:571–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Connell DA, Schneider-Kolsky ME, Hoving JL et al (2004) Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 183:975–984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ulreich N, Kainberger F, Huber W, Nehrer S (2002) Achilles tendon and sports. Radiologe 42:811–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fredberg U, Bolvig L (2002) Significance of ultrasonographically detected asymptomatic tendinosis in the patellar and achilles tendons of elite soccer players: a longitudinal study. Am J Sports Med 30:488–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fredberg U, Bolvig L, Pfeiffer-Jensen M et al (2004) Ultrasonography as a tool for diagnosis, guidance of local steroid injection and, together with pressure algometry, monitoring of the treatment of athletes with chronic jumper’s knee and Achilles tendinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scand J Rheumatol 33:94–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peers KH, Brys PP, Lysens RJ (2003) Correlation between power Doppler ultrasonography and clinical severity in Achilles tendinopathy. Int Orthop 27:180–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Reiter M, Ulreich N, Dirisamer A et al (2004) Colour and power Doppler sonography in symptomatic Achilles tendon disease. Int J Sports Med 25:301–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Richards PJ, Win T, Jones PW (2005) The distribution of microvascular response in Achilles tendonopathy assessed by colour and power Doppler. Skeletal Radiol 34:336–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sabir N, Demirlenk S, Yagci B et al (2005) Clinical utility of sonography in diagnosing plantar fasciitis. J Ultrasound Med 24:1041–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bonaldi VM, Chhem RK, Drolet R et al (1998) Iliotibial band friction syndrome: sonographic findings. J Ultrasound Med 17:257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gisslen K, Alfredson H (2005) Neovascularisation and pain in jumper’s knee: a prospective clinical and sonographic study in elite junior volleyball players. Br J Sports Med 39:423–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Biundo JJ Jr, Irwin RW, Umpierre E (2001) Sports and other soft tissue injuries, tendinitis, bursitis, and occupation-related syndromes. Curr Opin Rheumatol 13:146–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Gibson T (1987) Sports injuries. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1:583–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Brasseur JL, Lucidarme O, Tardieu M et al (2004) Ultrasonographic rotator-cuff changes in veteran tennis players: the effect of hand dominance and comparison with clinical findings. Eur Radiol 14:857–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ueblacker P, Gebauer M, Ziegler M et al (2005) Sports injuries and overuse syndromes. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 48:927–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Brasseur JL, Zeitoun-Eiss D (2005) Ultrasound of acute disorders of the shoulder. JBR-BTR 88:193–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bianchi S, Martinoli C, Abdelwahab IF (2005) Ultrasound of tendon tears. Part 1: general considerations and upper extremity. Skeletal Radiol 34:500–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hume PA, Reid D, Edwards T (2006) Epicondylar injury in sport: epidemiology, type, mechanisms, assessment, management and prevention. Sports Med 36:151–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Silvestri E, Biggi E, Molfetta L et al (2003) Power Doppler analysis of tendon vascularization. Int J Tissue React 25:149–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Maganaris CN, Narici MV, Almekinders LC, Maffulli N (2004) Biomechanics and pathophysiology of overuse tendon injuries: ideas on insertional tendinopathy. Sports Med 34:1005–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Jacobson JA (2002) Ultrasound in sports medicine. Radiol Clin North Am 40:363–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bianchi S, Poletti PA, Martinoli C (2006) Ultrasound appearance of tendon tears. Part 2: lower extremity and myotendinous tears. Skeletal Radiol 35:63–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Giuffre BM, Lisle DA (2005) Tear of the distal biceps branchii tendon: a new method of ultrasound evaluation. Australas Radiol 49:404–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Moosikasuwan JB, Miller TT, Burke BJ (2005) Rotator cuff tears: clinical, radiographic, and US findings. Radiographics 25:1591–1607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bianchi S, Cohen M, Jacob D (2005) Tendons: traumatic lesions. J Radiol 86:1845–1857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hahn P, Schmitt R, Kall S (2001) Stener lesion yes or no? Diagnosis by ultrasound. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 33:46–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Martino
    • 1
  • Enzo Silvestri
    • 2
  • Walter Grassi
    • 3
  • Giacomo Garlaschi
    • 4
  • Emilio Filippucci
    • 5
  • Carlo Martinoli
    • 6
  1. 1.Musgrave Park HospitalBelfastUK
  2. 2.Giovanni XXIII-Policlinico HospitalBariItaly
  3. 3.Department of RadiologySan Martino HospitalGenoaItaly
  4. 4.Jesi Medical CenterUniversity Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly
  5. 5.University of GenoaItaly
  6. 6.University Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly

Personalised recommendations