Advertisement

Functional MRI

  • M. A. Rocca
  • M. Filippi
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)

Abstract

Over the past decade, modern structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been extensively used for the study of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) [1] with the ultimate goal of increasing our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of irreversible disability. The application of these techniques has provided important insights into the pathobiology of MS. First, it has been demonstrated that MS-related damage is not restricted to T2-visible lesions, but also involves, diffusely, the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM) [1]. Secondly, it has been shown that the neurodegenerative component of the disease is not a late phenomenon and that it is not completely driven by inflammatory demyelination [2]. Finally, the contribution of axon damage to the clinical manifestations of the disease and to its clinical worsening over time has been confirmed [3, 4]. Despite these improvements, the correlation between the results of MRI and clinical findings remains suboptimal. This might be explained, at least partially, by the variable effectiveness of reparative and recovery mechanisms following MS-related tissue damage.

Keywords

Multiple Sclerosis Optic Neuritis Supplementary Motor Area Cortical Reorganization Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA, Comi G (2003) The use of quantitative magnetic-resonancebased techniques to monitor the evolution of multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol 2:337–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Inglese M, Benedetti B, Filippi M (2005) The relation between MRI measures of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 15:15–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bjartmar C, Trapp BD (2001) Axonal and neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis: mechanisms and functional consequences. Curr Opin Neurol 14:271–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bjartmar C, Wujek JR, Trapp BD (2003) Axonal loss in the pathology of MS: consequences for understanding the progressive phase of the disease. J Neurol Sci 15:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Waxman SG, Ritchie JM (1993) Molecular dissection of the myelinated axon. Ann Neurol 33:121–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA (2003) Disturbed function and plasticity in multiple sclerosis as gleaned from functional magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Opin Neurol 16:275–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ogawa S, Menon RS, Tank DW et al (1993) Functional brain mapping by blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging: a comparison of signal characteristics with a biophysical model. Biophys J 64:803–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jueptner M, Weiller C (1995) Review: does measurement of regional cerebral blood flow reflect synaptic activity? Implications for PET and fMRI. Neuroimage 2:148–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malonek D, Grinvald A (1996) Interactions between electrical activity and cortical microcirculation revealed by imaging spectroscopy: implications for functional brain mapping. Science 272:551–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vanzetta I, Grinvald A (1999) Increased cortical oxidative metabolism due to sensory stimulation: implications for functional brain imaging. Science 286:1555–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bandettini PA, Jesmanowicz A, Wong EC, Hyde JS (1993) Processing strategies for time-course data sets in functional MRI of the human brain. Magn Reson Med 30:161–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Worsley KJ, Friston KJ (1995) Analysis of fMRI time-series revisited-again. Neuroimage 2:173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clanet M, Berry I, Boulanouar K (1997) Functional imaging in multiple sclerosis. Int MS J 4:26–32Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rombouts SA, Lazeron RH, Scheltens P et al (1998) Visual activation patterns in patients with optic neuritis: an fMRI pilot study. Neurology 50:1896–1899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee MA, Reddy H, Johansen-Berg H et al (2000) The motor cortex shows adaptive functional changes to brain injury from multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 47:606–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reddy H, Narayanan S, Matthews PM et al (2000) Relating axonal injury to functional recovery in MS. Neurology 54:236–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reddy H, Narayanan S, Arnoutelis R et al (2000) Evidence for adaptive functional changes in the cerebral cortex with axonal injury from multiple sclerosis. Brain 123:2314–2320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Werring DJ, Bullmore ET, Toosy AT et al (2000) Recovery from optic neuritis is associated with a change in the distribution of cerebral response to visual stimulation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 68:441–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Langkilde AR, Frederiksen JL, Rostrup E, Larsson HB (2002) Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis. Eur J Neurol 9:277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Toosy AT, Werring DJ, Bullmore ET et al (2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the cortical response to photic stimulation in humans following optic neuritis recovery. Neurosci Lett 330:255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Russ MO, Cleff U, Lanfermann H et al (2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging in acute unilateral optic neuritis. J Neuroimaging 12:339–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA, Falini A et al (2002) Correlations between structural CNS damage and functional MRI changes in primary progressive MS. Neuroimage 15:537–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rocca MA, Falini A, Colombo B et al (2002) Adaptive functional changes in the cerebral cortex of patients with non-disabling MS correlate with the extent of brain structural damage. Ann Neurol 51:330–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rocca MA, Mezzapesa DM, Falini A et al (2003) Evidence for axonal pathology and adaptive cortical reorganization in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 18:847–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rocca MA, Gavazzi C, Mezzapesa DM et al (2003) A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 19:1770–1777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rocca MA, Pagani E, Ghezzi A et al (2003) Functional cortical changes in patients with MS and non-specific conventional MRI scans of the brain. Neuroimage 19:826–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reddy H, Narayanan S, Woolrich M et al (2002) Functional brain reorganization for hand movement in patients with multiple sclerosis: defining distinct effects of injury and disability. Brain 125:2646–2657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA, Mezzapesa DM et al (2004) Simple and complex movementassociated functional MRI changes in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS. Hum Brain Mapp 21:108–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rocca MA, Mezzapesa DM, Ghezzi A et al (2005) A widespread pattern of cortical activations in patients at presentation with clinically isolated symptoms is associated with evolution to definite multiple sclerosis. Am J Neuroradiol 26:1136–1139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pantano P, Iannetti GD, Caramia F et al (2002) Cortical motor reorganization after a single clinical attack of multiple sclerosis. Brain 125:1607–1615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pantano P, Mainero C, Iannetti GD et al (2002) Contribution of corticospinal tract damage to cortical motor reorganization after a single clinical attack of multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 17:1837–1843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rocca MA, Gallo A, Colombo B et al (2004) Pyramidal tract lesions and movementassociated cortical recruitment in patients with MS. Neuroimage 2004:23:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lowe MJ, Phillips MD, Lurito JT et al (2002) Multiple sclerosis: low-frequency temporal blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations indicate reduced functional connectivity initial results. Radiology 224:184–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rocca MA, Matthews PM, Caputo D et al (2002) Evidence for widespread movementassociated functional MRI changes in patients with PPMS. Neurology 58:866–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rocca MA, Mezzapesa DM, Ghezzi A et al (2003) Cord damage elicits brain functional reorganization after a single episode of myelitis. Neurology 61:1078–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rocca MA, Agosta F, Mezzapesa DM et al (2004) A functional MRI study of movement-associated cortical changes in patients with Devic’s neuromyelitis optica. Neuroimage 21:1061–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA, Mezzapesa DM et al (2004) A functional MRI study of cortical activations associated with object manipulation in patients with MS. Neuroimage 21:1147–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Calautti C, Baron JC (2003) Functional neuroimaging studies of motor recovery after stroke in adults: a review. Stroke 34:1553–1566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McDonald WI, Compston A, Edan G et al (2001) Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 50:121–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ferguson B, Matyszak MK, Esiri MM, Perry VH (1997) Axonal damage in acute multiple sclerosis lesions. Brain 120:393–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Trapp BD, Ransohoff R, Rudick R (1999) Axonal pathology in multiple sclerosis: relationship to neurologic disability. Curr Opin Neurol 12:295–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA, Colombo B et al (2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging correlates of fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 15:559–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rocca MA, Agosta F, Colombo B et al (2007) fMRI changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients complaining of fatigue after IFN*b-1 a injection. Hum Brain Mapp [epub 24 Aug 2006; doi:10.1002/hbm.20279]Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Filippi M, Rocca MA, Comi G (2003) The use of quantitative magnetic-resonancebased techniques to monitor the evolution of multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol 2:337–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lenzi D, Conte A, Mainero C et al (2007) Effect of corpus callosum damage on ipsilateral motor activation in patients with multiple sclerosis: a functional and anatomical study. Hum Brain Mapp [epub 1 Nov 2006; doi 10.1002/hbm.20305]Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rocca MA, Colombo B, Falini A et al (2005) Cortical adaptation in patients with MS: a cross-sectional functional MRI study of disease phenotypes. Lancet Neurol 4:618–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pantano P, Mainero C, Lenzi D et al (2005) A longitudinal fMRI study on motor activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain 128:2146–2153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ciccarelli O, Toosy AT, Marsden JF et al (2006) Functional response to active and passive ankle movements with clinical correlations in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 253:882–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mesulam MM (1998) From sensation to cognition. Brain 121:1013–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rao SM, Binder JR, Bandettini PA et al (1993) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of complex human movements. Neurology 43:2311–2318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    de Gelder B (2000) Neuroscience: more to seeing than meets the eye. Science 289:1148–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rocca MA, Agosta F, Martinelli V et al (2006) The level of spinal cord involvement influences the pattern of movement-associated cortical recruitment in patients with isolated myelitis. Neuroimage 15:879–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Morgen K, Kadom N, Sawaki L et al (2004) Training-dependent plasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain 127, 2506–2517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Staffen W, Mair A, Zauner H et al (2002) Cognitive function and fMRI in patients with multiple sclerosis: evidence for compensatory cortical activation during an attention task. Brain 125:1275–1282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Au Duong MV, Audoin B, Boulanouar K et al (2005) Altered functional connectivity related to white matter changes inside the working memory network at the very early stage of MS. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 25:1245–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Au Duong MV, Boulanouar K, Audoin B et al (2005) Modulation of effective connectivity inside the working memory network in patients at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 24:533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Audoin B, Ibarrola D, Ranjeva JP et al (2003) Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during a cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS. Hum Brain Mapp 20:51–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hillary FG, Chiaravalloti ND, Ricker JH et al (2003) An investigation of working memory rehearsal in multiple sclerosis using fMRI. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 25:965–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Parry AM, Scott RB, Palace J et al (2003) Potentially adaptive functional changes in cognitive processing for patients with multiple sclerosis and their acute modulation by rivastigmine. Brain 126:2750–2760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Penner IK, Rausch M, Kappos L et al (2003) Analysis of impairment related functional architecture in MS patients during performance of different attention tasks. J Neurol 250:461–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mainero C, Caramia F, Pozzilli C et al (2004) fMRI evidence of brain reorganization during attention and memory tasks in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 21:858–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sweet LH, Rao SM, Primeau M et al (2004) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of working memory among multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuroimaging 14:150–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sweet LH, Rao SM, Primeau M et al (2006) Functional magnetic resonance imaging response to increased verbal working memory demands among patients with multiple sclerosis. Hum Brain Mapp 27:28–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wishart HA, Saykin AJ, McDonald BC et al (2004) Brain activation patterns associated with working memory in relapsing-remitting MS. Neurology 62:234–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chiaravalloti N, Hillary FG, Ricker JH et al (2005) Cerebral activation patterns during working memory performance in multiple sclerosis using fMRI. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 27:33–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cader S, Cifelli A, Abu-Omar Y et al (2006) Reduced brain functional reserve and altered functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Brain 129:527–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Comi G, Rovaris M, Leocani L et al (2001) Clinical and MRI assessment of brain damage in MS. Neurol Sci 22:S123–S127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lazeron RH, Rombouts SA, Scheltens P et al (2004) An fMRI study of planning-related brain activity in patients with moderately advanced multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 10:549–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Audoin B, Au Duong MV, Ranjeva JP et al (2005) Magnetic resonance study of the influence of tissue damage and cortical reorganization on PASAT performance at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis. Hum Brain Mapp 24:216–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Rocca
    • 1
  • M. Filippi
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuroimaging Research Unit Department of NeurologyScientific Istitute and University Ospedale San RaffaeleMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations