T1 Black Holes and Gray Matter Damage

  • M. Neema
  • V.S.R. Dandamudi
  • A. Arora
  • J. Stankiewicz
  • R. Bakshi
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become important in the early diagnosis and monitoring of various neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI has emerged as a key supportive therapeutic outcome measure in MS-related clinical trials. The limitations of conventional MRI surrogates have driven researchers to develop better biomarkers, including those capturing destructive aspects of the disease. In this chapter, we discuss the most recent data highlighting the role of hypointense lesions on T1-weighted images (black holes; BH) and gray matter (GM) damage in the MRI assessment of MS. We focus on the most relevant pathologic, MRI, and clinical correlation studies addressing BH and GM injury.


Black Hole Multiple Sclerosis Expand Disability Status Scale Glatiramer Acetate Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Neema
    • 1
  • V.S.R. Dandamudi
    • 1
  • A. Arora
    • 1
  • J. Stankiewicz
    • 1
  • R. Bakshi
    • 1
  1. 1.Brigham & Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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