Clinical trials of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) traditionally use rating scales, such as neuropsychological tests, and disability scales as outcome measures. However, their intrinsic measurement variability, the slow disease progression, and the low efficacy of the drugs developed so far have led to trial designs with hundreds of subjects per treatment arm. The development of imaging markers with proven sensitivity to disease progression has recently paved the way for their use as outcome measures in clinical trials. The use of imaging measures has the double advantage of decreasing the number of subjects per treatment arm whilst also providing a direct measure of the degree of disease modification induced by the “active” molecules. A number of magnetic resonance (MR)-based markers have been developed for clinical trials of AD, all of which have their own strengths and weaknesses. Here, the most often used techniques, which could easily be exported to the study of neurodegeneration in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis, are reviewed.
KeywordsMild Cognitive Impairment Hippocampal Volume Gray Matter Loss Antibody Responder Pocampal Volume
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