Prevalence of Depression in Chronic Heart Failure

  • E. P. Havranek


Heart failure is a clinical syndrome characterized by the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the demands of the skeletal muscle system during exertion. Heart failure may be the “final common pathway” for many cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, hypertension and myocarditis, or it may occur as a separate idiopathic entity. It causes functional limitation from dyspnea and fatigue that may be severe; heart failure patients on average report functional limitation nearly two standard deviations from the mean for the normal population [1]. There is a wide variability in disease severity. Some patients may experience symptoms only with unusual exertion outside the boundaries of their usual activity. In its more advanced stages adequate blood flow is impaired at rest, and may result in impaired perfusion of the kidneys, liver and even the cerebrum. Treatment consists of a regimen of multiple drugs that diminish the severity of symptoms and improve survival; curative therapy is not available. There are other options available for a limited subset of the patients with more advanced disease, including cardiac transplantation and mechanical assist devices.


Heart Failure Depressive Symptom Chronic Heart Failure Heart Failure Patient Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. P. Havranek
    • 1
  1. 1.Denver Health Medical CenterUniversity of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences CenterDenverUSA

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