Functioning and Disability in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease within the ICF Classification Framework: Proposals for Using ICF to Classify Functioning and Disability in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

  • M. Leonardi
  • A. Raggi


According to data from the Italian Ministry of Health, cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of death in Italy, being responsible for 44% of all deaths.More specifically, ischemic heart disease is the first cause (28% of total deaths) and cerebrovascular conditions are the third cause (13% of all deaths). In countries in the European Union, heart disease causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people — this is 42%, or a little less than half, of all deaths — and stroke causes 25% of all deaths [1]. A similar situation is found in the United States, where heart disease accounts for about 930, 000 deaths every year, or, 40% of the total deaths [2].


Psychological Treatment Cardiac Rehabilitation Body Function Body Structure Chronic Heart Failure Patient 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Leonardi
    • 1
  • A. Raggi
    • 2
  1. 1.Responsible Headnet Research Group: Public Health, Disability, ICF Scientific DirectionItalian National Neurological Institute Carlo BestaMilanItaly
  2. 2.Scientific DirectionItalian National Neurological Institute Carlo BestaMilanItaly

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