Advertisement

Type A, Type D, Anger-Prone Behavior and Risk of Relapse in CHD Patients

  • A. Compare
  • G. M. Manzoni
  • E. Molinari

Abstract

The association between personality and physical illness is supported by many different empirical studies and, as Panzer and Viljoen [1] maintain, numerous clinicians and many researchers who belong to different areas and scientific disciplines are in agreement about the existence of complex and stable bio-psychosocial associative patterns.

Keywords

Coronary Heart Disease Patient Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Social Inhibition Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Vital Exhaustion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Panzer A, Viljoen M (2003) Associations between psychological profiles and diseases: examining hemispheric dominance and autonomic activation as underlying regulators. Med Hypotheses 61:75–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salvini A (1995) Gli schemi di tipizzazione della personalità in psicologia clinica e psicoterapia. In: Pagliaro G, Cesa-Bianchi M (Eds) Nuove prospettive in psicoterapia e modelli interattivo-cognitivi. FrancoAngeli, Milan, Italy, pp 63–105Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lesperance F, Frasure-Smith N (1996) Negative emotions and coronary heart disease: getting to the heart of the matter. Lancet 347:414–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fonagy P (2001) The human genome and the representational world: the role of early mother-infant interaction in creating an interpersonal interpretive mechanism. Bull Menninger Clin 65:427–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Joseph R (1999) Environmental influences on neural plasticity, the limbic system, emotional development and attachment: a review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 29:189–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luecken LJ (1998) Childhood attachment and loss experiences affect adult cardiovascular and cortisol function. Psychosom Med 60:765–772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hemingway H, Marmot M (1999) Evidence based cardiology: psychosocial factors in the aetiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMJ 318:1460–1467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Kaplan J (1999) Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation 99:2192–2217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Strike PC, Steptoe A (2004) Psychosocial factors in the development of coronary artery disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 46:337–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pedersen SS, Denollet J (2003) Type D personality, cardiac events, and impaired quality of life: a review. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 10:241–248CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thorensen CE, Powell LH (1992) Type A behavior pattern: new perspectives on theory, assessment and intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol 60:595–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Friedman M, Rosenman RH (1959) Association of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings; blood cholesterol level, blood clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis, and clinical coronary artery disease. JAMA 169:1286–1296Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lachar BL (1993) Coronary-prone behavior. Type A behavior revisited. Tex Heart Inst J 20:143–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedman HS, Booth-Kewley S (1988) Validity of the type A construct: a reprise. Psychol Bull 104:381–384CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menninger KA, Menninger WC (1936) Psychoanalitic observations in cardiac disorders. Am Heart J 11:10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Siegman AW (1993) Cardiovascular consequences of expressing, experiencing, and repressing anger. J Behav Med 16:539–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chesney MA (1988) The evolution of coronary-prone behavior. Ann Behav Med 10:43–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fred HL, Hariharan R (2002) To be B or not to be B-is that the question? Tex Heart Inst J 29:1–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller TQ, Turner CW, Tindale RS et al (1991) Reasons for the trend toward null findings in research on type A behavior. Psychol Bull 110:469–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lyness SA (1993) Predictors of differences between type A and B individuals in heart rate and blood pressure reactivity. Psychol Bull 114:266–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Denollet J, Sys SU, Brutsaert DL (1995) Personality and mortality after myocardial infarction. Psychosom Med 57:582–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Denollet J, Brutsaert DL (1998) Personality, disease severity, and the risk of longterm cardiac events in patients with a decreased ejection fraction after myocardial infarction. Circulation 97:167–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ray JJ, Bozek R (1980) Dissecting the A-B personality type. Br J Med Psychol 53:181–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dimsdale JE (1988) A perspective on Type A behavior and coronary disease. N Engl J Med 318:110–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Strube MJ, Boland SM, Manfredo PA, Al-Falaij A (1987) Type A behavior pattern and self-evaluation of abilities: empirical tests of the self-appraisal model. J Pers Soc Psychol 52:956–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Matthews KA (1982) Psychological perspectives on the type A behavior pattern. Psychol Bull 91:293–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jenkins CD, Rosenman RH, Friedman M (1967) Development of an objective psychological test for the determination of the coronary-prone behavior pattern in employed men. J Chronic Dis 20:371–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bortner RW (1969) A short rating scale as a potential measure of pattern a behavior. J Chronic Dis 22:8791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haynes SG, Feinleib M, Kannel WB (1980) The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham study. III. Eight-year incidence of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 111:37–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Burns W, Bluen SD (1992) Assessing a multidimensional type A behavior scale. Personality and Individual Differences 13:977–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Birks Y, Derek R (2000) Identifying components of type A behavior: “toxic” and “nontoxic” achieving. Personality and Individual Differences28:1093–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rosenman RH, Brand RJ, Jenkins D et al (1975) Coronary heart disease in western collaborative group study. Final follow-up experience of 8 1/2 years. JAMA 233:872–877CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jenkins CD, Rosenman RH, Zyzanski SJ (1974) Prediction of clinical coronary heart disease by a test for the coronary-prone behavior pattern. N Engl J Med 290:1271–1275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    French-Belgian-Collaborative-Group (1982) Ischemic heart disease and psychological patterns: Prevalence and incidence studies in Belgium and France. Adv Cardiol 29:25–31Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cohen JB, Reed D (1985) The type A behavior pattern and coronary heart disease among Japanese men in Hawaii. J Behav Med 8:343–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Coronary-prone behavior and coronary heart disease: a critical review (1981) The review panel on coronary-prone behavior and coronary heart disease. Circulation 63:1199–1215Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jenkins CD, Zyzansky SJ, Rosenman R (1976) Risk of new myocardial infarction in middle-aged men with manifest coronary heart disease. Circulation 53:342–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shekelle RB, Hulley SB, Neaton JD et al (1985) The MRFIT behavior pattern study. II. Type A behavior and incidence of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 122:559–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shekelle RB, Gale M, Norusis M (1985) Type A score (Jenkins activity survey) and risk of recurrent coronary heart disease in the aspirin myocardial infarction study. Am J Cardiol 56:221–225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dimsdale JE, Hackett TP, Hutter AM et al (1979) Type A behavior and angiographic findings. J Psychosom Res 23:273–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Case R.B, Heller SS, Case NB, Moss AJ (1985) The multicenter post-infarction research group. Type A behavior and survival after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 312:737–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pickering TG (1985) Should studies of patients undergoing coronary angiography be used to evaluate the role of behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease? J Behav Med 8:203–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ragland DR, Brand RJ (1988) Coronary heart disease mortality in the western collaborative group study. Follow-up experience of 22 years. Am J Epidemiol 127:462–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ragland DR, Brand RJ (1988) Type A behavior and mortality from coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 318:65–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Friedman M, Thoresen CE, Gill JJ, Ulmer et al (1986) Alteration of type A behavior and its effect on cardiac recurrences in post myocardial infarction patients: Summary results of the recurrent coronary prevention project. Am Heart J 112: 653–665CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Myrtek M (2001) Meta-analyses of prospective studies on coronary heart disease, type A personality, and hostility. Int J Cardiol 79:245–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gostautas A, Perminas A (2004) [impact of the relationship between smoking and stressogenic behavior (type A behavior) and their cumulative effect on development of myocardial infarction and mortality (25-year follow-up data)]. Medicina (Kaunas) 40:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Eaker ED, Sullivan LM, Kelly-Hayes M et al (2004) Anger and hostility predict the development of atrial fibrillation in men in the Framingham offspring study. Circulation 109:1267–1271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Manuck SB, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB (1983) Behaviorally induced heart rate reactivity and atherosclerosis in cynomolgus monkeys. Psychosom Med 45:95–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Manuck SB, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB (1983) Social instability and coronary artery atherosclerosis in cynomolgus monkeys. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 7:485–491CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Manuck SB, Kaplan JR, Matthews KA (1986) Behavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis 6:2–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Krantz DS, Contrada RJ, Hill DR, Friedler E (1988) Environmental stress and biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease. J Consult Clin Psychol 56:333–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Williams RB, Jr, Suarez EC, Kuhn CM et al (1991) Biobehavioral basis of coronaryprone behavior in middle-aged men. Part I: Evidence for chronic SNS activation in Type As. Psychosom Med 53:517–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Williams RB, Jr, Lane JD, Kuhn CM et al (1982) Type A behavior and elevated physiological and neuroendocrine responses to cognitive tasks. Science 218:483–485CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Muranaka M, Monou H, Suzuki J et al (1988) Physiological responses to catecholamine infusions in type A and type B men. Health Psychol 7:145–163CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Suarez EC, Williams RB, Jr, Kuhn CM et al (1991) Biobehavioral basis of coronaryprone behavior in middle-age men. Part II: Serum cholesterol, the type A behavior pattern, and hostility as interactive modulators of physiological reactivity. Psychosom Med 53:528–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Smith TW, Glazer K, Ruiz JM, Gallo LC (2004) Hostility, anger, aggressiveness, and coronary heart disease: An interpersonal perspective on personality, emotion, and health. J Pers 72:1217–1270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dembroski TM, MacDougall JM, Williams RB et al (1985) Components of Type A, hostility, and anger-in: relationship to angiographic findings. Psychosom Med 47:219–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Siegman AW, Anderson R, Herbst J et al (1992) Dimensions of anger-hostility and cardiovascular reactivity in provoked and angered men. J Behav Med 15:257–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Matthews KA, Glass DC, Rosenman RH, Bortner RW (1977) Competitive drive, pattern a, and coronary heart disease: a further analysis of some data from the western collaborative group study. J Chronic Dis 30:489–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    MacDougall JM, Dembroski TM, Dimsdale JE, Hackett TP (1985) Components of type A, hostility, and anger-in: further relationships to angiographic findings. Health Psychol 4:137–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dembroski TM, MacDougall JM, Costa PT Jr, Grandits GA (1989) Components of hostility as predictors of sudden death and myocardial infarction in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Psychosom Med 51:514–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hardy JD, Smith TW (1988) Cynical hostility and vulnerability to disease: social support, life stress, and physiological response to conflict. Health Psychol 7:447–459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Williams RB Jr, Haney TL, Lee KL et al (1980) Type A behavior, hostility, and coronary atherosclerosis. Psychosom Med 42: 539–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shekelle RB, Gale M, Ostfeld AM, Paul O (1983) Hostility, risk of coronary heart disease, and mortality. Psychosom Med 45:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Barefoot JC, Dahlstrom WG, Williams RB Jr (1983) Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: a 25-year follow-up study of 255 physicians. Psychosom Med 45:59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Barefoot JC, Dodge K A, Peterson BL et al (1989) The cook-medley hostility scale: item content and ability to predict survival. Psychosom Med 51:46–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Siegman AW, Dembroski TM, Ringel N (1987) Components of hostility and the severity of coronary artery disease. Psychosom Med 49:127–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Buss AH, Durkee A (1957) An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. J Consult Psychol 21:343–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Matthews KA, Gump BB, Harris KF et al (2004) Hostile behaviors predict cardiovascular mortality among men enrolled in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Circulation 109:66–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kawachi I, Sparrow D, Spiro A, 3rd et al (1996) A prospective study of anger and coronary heart disease. The normative aging study. Circulation 94:2090–2095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chang PP, Ford DE, Meoni LA et al (2002) Anger in young men and subsequent premature cardiovascular disease: the precursors study. Arch Intern Med 162:901–906CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gallacher JE, Yarnell JW, Sweetnam PM et al (1999) Anger and incident heart disease in the Caerphilly study. Psychosom Med 61:446–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Spielberger CD, Reheiser EC, Sydeman SJ (1995) Measuring the experience, expression, and control of anger. Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs 18:207–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Williams JE, Paton CC, Siegler IC et al (2000) Anger proneness predicts coronary heart disease risk: prospective analysis from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (aric) study. Circulation 101:2034–2039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Williams JE, Nieto FJ, Sanford CP, Tyroler HA (2001) Effects of an angry temperament on coronary heart disease risk: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Epidemiol 154:230–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Eng PM, Fitzmaurice G, Kubzansky LD et al (2003) Anger expression and risk of stroke and coronary heart disease among male health professionals. Psychosom Med 65:100–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sykes DH, Arveiler D, Salters CP et al (2002) Psychosocial risk factors for heart disease in France and Northern Ireland: the prospective epidemiological study of myocardial infarction (prime). Int J Epidemiol 31:1227–1234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Brummett BH, Maynard KE, Haney TL et al (2000) Reliability of interview-assessed hostility ratings across mode of assessment and time. J Pers Assess 75:225–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Haney TL, Maynard KE, Houseworth SJ et al (1996) Interpersonal hostility assessment technique: description and validation against the criterion of coronary artery disease. J Pers Assess 66:386–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cook W, Medley D (1954) Proposed hostility and pharisaic-virtue scales for the MMPI. J Appl Psychol 38:414–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Treiber FA, Kamarck T, Schneiderman N et al (2003) Cardiovascular reactivity and development of preclinical and clinical disease states. Psychosom Med 65:46–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Smith TW (1992) Hostility and health: current status of a psychosomatic hypothesis. Health Psychol 11:139–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Christensen AJ, Smith TW (1993) Cynical hostility and cardiovascular reactivity during self-disclosure. Psychosom Med 55:193–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kop WJ (2003) The integration of cardiovascular behavioral medicine and psychoneuroimmunology: New developments based on converging research fields. Brain Behav Immun 17:233–237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Denollet J, Sys SU, Stroobant N et al (1996) Personality as independent predictor of long-term mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Lancet 347:417–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, Talajic M (1995) Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation 91:999–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Frasure-Smith N, Lesperance F, Talajic M (1995) The impact of negative emotions on prognosis following myocardial infarction: is it more than depression? Health Psychol 14:388–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    White RE, Frasure-Smith N (1995) Uncertainty and psychologic stress after coronary angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery. Heart Lung 24:19–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Denollet J (2002) Type D personality and vulnerability to chronic disease, impaired quality of life and depressive symptoms. Psychosom Med 64:101Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Denollet J, Vaes J, Brutsaert DL (2000) Inadequate response to treatment in coronary heart disease: adverse effects of type D personality and younger age on 5-year prognosis and quality of life. Circulation 102:630–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Appels A, Golombeck B, Gorgels A et al (2000) Behavioral risk factors of sudden cardiac arrest. J Psychosom Res 48:463–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pedersen SS, Lemos PA, van Vooren PR et al (2004) Type D personality predicts death or myocardial infarction after bare metal stent or sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: A rapamycin-eluting stent evaluated at Rotterdam cardiology hospital (research) registry substudy. JAMA 44:997–1001Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Denollet J, Conraads VM, Brutsaert DL et al (2003) Cytokines and immune activation in systolic heart failure: the role of type D personality. Brain Behav Immun 17:304–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Habra ME, Linden W, Anderson JC, Weinberg J (2003) Type D personality is related to cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress. J Psychosom Res 55:235–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Compare
  • G. M. Manzoni
    • 1
  • E. Molinari
  1. 1.Clinical Psychology Service and Laboratory St. Giuseppe HospitalItalian Auxologic InstituteVerbaniaItaly

Personalised recommendations