Psychological Evaluation and Patient’s Profile

  • Italo Carta
  • Ornella Convertino
  • Juliette Bagnasco
  • Serenella Fornara


An examination of the psychological, psychiatric and, above all, anthropological literature underlines the importance of the hands in psychophysical development of human beings, representation of body image and structuring of identity [1, 2, 3]. From the anthropological point of view, and in an evolutionary phylogenetic perspective, the process of humanisation is strictly related to changes in the spatial position of the upper limbs, which, after having been released from the need to adhere to the ground, became free to explore the world. This fact gave the hands a symbolic value that has been enriched over the course of millennia and, in a certain sense, has paralleled the development of cultures and their pragmatic and artistic expressions. By means of exquisitely cultural processes of transformation, the impulsive and instinctive potentials rooted in human bodylines became expressive of affections and the various declinations of love, as well as of the broad paradigm of aggressiveness.


Body Image Psychological Evaluation Body Schema Phantom Limb Painful Phantom Limb 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Italo Carta
    • 1
  • Ornella Convertino
    • 1
  • Juliette Bagnasco
    • 1
  • Serenella Fornara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, San Gerardo HospitalUniversity of Milan-BicoccaMonza, MilanItaly

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