Bone Healing in Hand Transplantation

  • Markus Gabl
  • Sigurd Pechlaner
  • Martin Lutz
  • Rohit Arora
  • Michael Blauth
  • Michael Rieger
  • Marina Ninkovic
  • Hildegunde Piza
  • Stefan Schneeberger
  • Raimund Margreiter


Various bone disorders can affect the ability of bone cells to structure organic and inorganic components. Avascularity can cause osteonecrosis, with death of haematopoietic cells, lipocytes and endothelial cells. Repair of osteonecrosis is the time needed for the process to replace necrotic bone. Callous fracture healing is a regenerative process consisting of three stages of inflammation: development of soft callus, of hard callus and remodelling [1, 2]. During inflammation, new blood vessels are induced, enhancing angiogenesis, which can be investigated by Doppler ultrasound. Following inflammation, fibrous and cartilaginous tissue known as soft callus develops, which can be observed by grey-scale ultrasound. In the hard callus stage, cartilaginous tissue converts to woven bone, which will finally be remodelled to lamellar bone.


Bone Healing Osteotomy Site Necrotic Bone Cancellous Bone Graft Forearm Bone 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Gabl
    • 1
  • Sigurd Pechlaner
    • 1
  • Martin Lutz
    • 1
  • Rohit Arora
    • 1
  • Michael Blauth
    • 1
  • Michael Rieger
    • 2
  • Marina Ninkovic
    • 3
  • Hildegunde Piza
    • 4
  • Stefan Schneeberger
    • 5
  • Raimund Margreiter
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of TraumatologyMedical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyThe Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  3. 3.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation UnitThe Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  4. 4.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryThe Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  5. 5.Department of General and Transplant SurgeryMedical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  6. 6.Department of Transplant SurgeryThe Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria

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